Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic. Temperate; 49°N - 43°N, 8°E - 28°E
Europe: Danube drainage (absent from Danube main river except upper course and stretches with fast current). In Appendix III of the Bern Convention (protected fauna).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 10.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 59043)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Diagnosed from its congeners in Black Sea basin by having the following characters: anus situated midway between pelvic and anal origins or closer to anal origin; predorsal scales without longitudinal epithelial crests; caudal peduncle depth 3.0-3.5 times in its length; dorsal and caudal rays with faint dark spots, forming one dark vertical row (Ref. 59043).
Adults inhabit riffles of small, fast-flowing rivers and bottom of large rivers with water velocities of 0.7 m/s and more, stone bottom, in submontane zone. Young individuals prefer areas with slow current and shallow shoreline on sand bottom. Adults are nocturnal and solitary while juveniles are diurnal. Spawning occurs in shallow areas with very high current of about 1 m/s (Ref. 59043). Adults feed on insects and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 556). Are sensitive to pollution and damming; locally threatened, especially in western and southern Danube drainage; extirpated in the upper Danube (Ref. 59043).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Both male and female move to surface or open water to spawn. Eggs drift with current, sink to bottom and stick to substrate (Ref. 59043).
Kottelat, M. and J. Freyhof, 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol and Freyhof, Berlin. 646 pp. (Ref. 59043)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00575 (0.00276 - 0.01201), b=3.15 (2.98 - 3.32), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.39 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .