Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 15 - 60 m (Ref. 90102). Tropical
Eastern Indian Ocean: Andaman, India and Nicobar islands. Western Pacific: Thailand, Australia, Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2334)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Seldom noticed because of its efficient camouflage. Inhabits sand, rubble and mud bottoms in 15-60 m (Ref 90102).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea and W.B. Scott, 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. Am. Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. (21):243 p. (Ref. 4537)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.3 - 28.6, mean 27.1 °C (based on 262 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02138 (0.00899 - 0.05085), b=2.94 (2.73 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.1 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 65.7 [33.8, 146.2] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.56 [0.32, 1.07] mg/100g ; Protein = 17.9 [16.3, 19.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.193 [0.087, 0.557] g/100g ; Selenium = 29.4 [14.5, 71.1] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 102 [30, 338] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.14 [0.74, 1.78] mg/100g (wet weight);