Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
() > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Lonchurus: Greek, logche = lance + Greek, oura = tail (Ref. 45335). More on author: Bloch.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal. Tropical
Western Atlantic: Colombia to the Amazon delta in Brazil including the Windward islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); common length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702)
(total): 10 - 12;
soft rays: 7 - 9. Body often brownish to yellowish, slightly darker above. All fins darkish, pectoral fins long and jet black. Base of pelvic and anal fins yellowish. Inside of gill cover dusky. Mouth large, but inferior, nearly horizontal. Chin with a pair of moderately long, slender barbels (longer than eye diameter). Pectoral fins very long, upper rays filamentous, extending to caudal peduncle. Pelvic fins with first soft ray filamentous, extending beyond anus. Gas bladder reduced in size, much shorter than head length; bearing anteriorly 1 pair of appendages, the first short and horn-like, the second long, tube-like, and directed backward (Ref 51721).
Found usually over sandy to muddy bottoms in coastal marine and brackish waters. Important food fish.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Chao, L.N., 1978. Sciaenidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. West Atlantic (Fishing Area 31). Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3702)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.8 - 28, mean 27.5 °C (based on 162 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00589 (0.00270 - 0.01286), b=3.09 (2.90 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .