Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Sciaenidae
(Drums or croakers)
Etymology: Cynoscion: Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, odous = teeth + Greek, skion, skiaina = barbel, red mullet (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Randall & Cervigón.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 20 - 60 m (Ref. 3702). Tropical; 12°N - 4°N
Western Atlantic: Colombia to northern Brazil. Also reported in Nicaragua (Ref. 13613).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3702); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 8 - 10. Silvery grey on back, pale below. Trunk with dotted oblique stripes along scale rows. Inside opercle black, visible externally. Spinous dorsal-fin margin dark. Mouth large, slightly oblique, lower jaw projecting. Upper jaw with a pair of large canine-like teeth at tip. Chin without barbels or pores. Snout with 2 marginal pores. Gas bladder with a pair of straight, horn-like anterior appendages. Soft dorsal fin unscaled except 2 or 3 rows of small scales along its base (Ref 51721).
Found over mud and sand bottoms (Ref. 3702). Marketed mostly fresh (Ref. 3702).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Cervigón, F., 1993. Los peces marinos de Venezuela. Volume 2. Fundación Científica Los Roques, Caracas,Venezuela. 497 p. (Ref. 9626)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26 - 27.6, mean 26.9 °C (based on 14 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00871 (0.00435 - 0.01745), b=3.07 (2.91 - 3.23), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100) .