Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Stomiidae
(Barbeled dragonfishes) > Melanostomiinae
Etymology: Eustomias: Greek, eu = good + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Regan & Trewavas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range - 1000 m (Ref. 11333), usually - m (Ref. ). Deep-water; 0°C - ; 13°N - 8°N
Eastern Atlantic: north of Senegal, but not at or east of Cape Verde, also at 6°N 35°W. Western Atlantic: Straits of Florida, Caribbean Sea and Puerto Rico. Also known from the Indian and West Pacific Oceans.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 13.6 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4468); 12.0 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 37 - 38;
Vertebrae: 68. Barbel with two terminal bulbs, distal one bearing tuft of filaments (Ref. 37473); separated by a long interspace, 1.7-3.8 times the length of distal bulb in specimens larger than 7 cm SL. Barbel length 31-82% SL except when developing. Terminal filaments short, 3-7 (less than 10% SL) without prominent bulblets, arising together from distal bulb or from a short distal stem; 1 filament thicker and longer than the rest. Some or all filaments with pigmented axes. Distal bulb ovoid , only slightly longer than wide, 1.2-2.5 times proximal-bulb length. Axis of stem and between bulbs variably pigmented; a black spot or cap almost always formed at proximal end of distal bulb. External chevron-shaped or roundish striated areas on stem unpigmented. Middorsal paired spots between occiput and dorsal-fin origin 7 or 8, sometimes 9 (Ref. 11333).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gibbs, R.H. and M.A. Barnett, 1990. Melanostomiidae. p. 308-337. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4468)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.1 - 6.6, mean 5.7 °C (based on 5 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.2 ±0.73 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Assuming tmax>3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (23 of 100) .