Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Stomiidae
(Barbeled dragonfishes) > Melanostomiinae
Etymology: Eustomias: Greek, eu = good + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Regan & Trewavas.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range - 2000 m (Ref. 11333), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 30°N -
Eastern Central Atlantic: known only from one record northwest of Cape Verde. Western Atlantic: west of 45°W between 28°N-20°N, off Puerto Rico, the Caribbean Sea south off Cuba.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.3 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4468); 20.0 cm SL (female)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Two terminal bulbs separated by a short interspace, 0.6-1.7 times length of distal bulb. Barbel length 58-70% SL in specimens larger than 9 cm. Terminal filament 10-23% SL, except in some small specimens, with 2-3 (often 2) prominent branches arising closely together at 1-5 distal-bulb lengths, from the distal bulb in specimens to 11.4 cm SL (at 10 bulb lengths in a 20 cm specimen). Stem of filament proximal to major branches with widely-spaced tiny bulblets and without short basal branches; all long branches with very small widely-spaced bulblets (bulblets larger and more conspicuous in a 20 cm specimen). Barbel without melanophores (rarely very sparse pigment on axis of stem or filament). Middorsal paired spots between occiput and dorsal-fin origin probably 8, often diffuse or obscure (Ref. 11333).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gibbs, R.H. and M.A. Barnett, 1990. Melanostomiidae. p. 308-337. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4468)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.8 - 17.7, mean 10.1 °C (based on 219 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100) .