Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Stomiidae
(Barbeled dragonfishes) > Astronesthinae
Etymology: Astronesthes: Greek, astra = ray + Greek, esthes, -es = suit, something used to wrap (Ref. 45335). More on authors: Goode & Bean.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 0 - 2400 m (Ref. 37039). Deep-water; 62°N - 32°S, 98°W - 154°W
Atlantic Ocean: North Atlantic to about 62°N, western South Atlantic to 32°S (in the eastern central Atlantic, from 30°N to about 11°S; not known from the Gulf of Guinea (5°N to 10°S) but probably inhabits all other oceanic areas). Elsewhere, Indian and Pacific oceans.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 17.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 4465)
soft rays: 16 - 19. Moderately elongate and slender. Maxillary teeth are comblike, closely spaced. Serial photophores are not broken into small groups. Luminous patches are lacking from the top of head and body (Ref. 37039). Barbel longer than the head, terminal expanded, ventral half of the bulb is darkly pigmented (Ref. 37473). Body black (Ref. 37039).
An oceanic and mesopelagic species usually found deeper than 500 m during the day (Ref. 2802). Epi- and bathy-benthopelagic at 58-1900 m to 3200 m fishing depths (Ref. 58302). Feeds on midwater fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 2802).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gibbs, R.H. Jr., 1990. Astronesthidae. p. 300-307. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4465)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 4.1 - 13.7, mean 8 °C (based on 1185 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00380 (0.00147 - 0.00985), b=3.10 (2.87 - 3.33), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.67 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (27 of 100) .