Haemulon plumierii, White grunt : fisheries, gamefish, aquarium

Haemulon plumierii (Lacepède, 1801)

White grunt
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Haemulon plumierii   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Haemulon plumierii (White grunt)
Haemulon plumierii
Picture by Stadler, B.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes (Perch-likes) > Haemulidae (Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Lacepède.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 40 m (Ref. 9626).   Subtropical; 39°N - 23°S, 99°W - 30°W

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Point map | Introductions | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: Chesapeake Bay, through the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean southward to Brazil. Including Antilles (Ref. 26938).

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 18.3, range 11 - 23.23 cm
Max length : 53.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798); max. published weight: 4.4 kg (Ref. 4699)

Short description Morphology | Morphometrics

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 9. Side of head has narrow blue stripes; scales above lateral line much larger than those below (Ref. 26938). Scale rows just below lateral line oblique; color variable but usually light yellowish (Ref. 13442).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Found in dense aggregations during the day on patch reefs, around coral formations, or on sandy bottoms (Ref. 9710). Juveniles common in Thalassia testudinum beds (Ref. 5217). Feeds on crustaceans, small mollusks, and small fishes. Frequently exhibits a territorial 'kissing' display in which two contenders push each other on the lips with their mouths wide open (Ref. 9710). Marketed fresh. Has been reared in captivity (Ref. 35420).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).

Main reference Upload your references | References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Courtenay, W.R. and H.F. Sahlman, 1978. Pomadasyidae. In W. Fischer (ed.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Central Atlantic (Fishing Area 31), Volume 4. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 3798)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)

  Least Concern (LC) ; Date assessed: 10 October 2015

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)

Human uses

Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
FAO(fisheries: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

More information

Aquaculture profile
Allele frequencies
Mass conversion
Stamps, Coins Misc.
Swim. type
Gill area


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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 23.4 - 28, mean 25.9 °C (based on 342 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01445 (0.01195 - 0.01748), b=2.99 (2.95 - 3.03), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  3.8   ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.5 (3.1 - 7.0) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 11 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179):  Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.16-0.35; tm=2; tmax=13; Fec=64,000).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  High vulnerability (62 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.