Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 50 m (Ref. 9626). Subtropical; 33°N - 12°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Bermuda, southeastern Florida (USA), and the Bahamas to Brazil.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 19.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 33.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798); max. published weight: 550.00 g (Ref. 5217)
soft rays: 8. Broad black area above line from dorsal fin origin to tip of lower caudal fin lobe, including upper part of caudal peduncle and both lobes of tail. Striking colored species, with a silvery body, black back and tail (Ref. 26938). With narrow yellow stripes, the broadest mid-lateral (Ref. 13442).
Inhabits clear inshore and offshore reefs (Ref. 9710) and adjacent grass beds, often in schools (Ref. 3798). Feeds on crustaceans (Ref. 3798). Marketed fresh (Ref. 3798).
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: minor commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.7 - 28, mean 26.8 °C (based on 288 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.01058 - 0.02988), b=2.99 (2.85 - 3.13), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.2 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.4 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .