Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Haemulon: Greek, haimaleos = bloody (Ref. 45335). More on author: Cuvier.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 115174), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C - ; 26°N - 8°N, 98°W - 60°W
Western Atlantic: Southern Florida and Antilles south to Venezuela.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3798)
Occurs in shallow neritic areas, over shallow mud to sand-mud bottoms; less common in areas with clear water and coral reef habitats (Ref. 5217). Marketed fresh and salted (Ref. 3798).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Reports of ciguatera poisoning (Ref. 30303)
Fisheries: commercial; aquarium: public aquariums
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01413 (0.00875 - 0.02279), b=2.99 (2.86 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.5 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.0 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.18).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 42.3 [24.5, 72.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.529 [0.310, 0.890] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [17.4, 21.3] % ; Omega3 = 0.138 [0.077, 0.218] g/100g ; Selenium = 35.8 [20.6, 57.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 89.8 [35.8, 212.7] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.14 [0.69, 1.66] mg/100g (wet weight);