Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; pelagic; pH range: 6.2 - 7.5; dH range: ? - 18. Tropical; 22°C - 26°C (Ref. 12468)
Africa: Congo basin, from the (marine) lower Congo (Ref. 1879, 42510) up to Lake Upemba (Ref. 2970) (Luapula-Moero and southern Kasai excluded; Ref. 2970) in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of Congo. Also in the Rufiji-Ruaha in Tanzania (Ref. 4967, 7095).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7095)
Inhabits rivers (Ref. 4967).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Daget, J., 1984. Citharinidae. p. 212-216. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 7095)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5195 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01585 (0.00614 - 0.04089), b=2.96 (2.74 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.3 ±0.1 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (28 of 100) .