Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gonorynchiformes
(Milkfishes) > Kneriidae
(Shellears) > Kneriinae
Etymology: Kneria: From Kner, that studied fishes in the Imperial Museum of Vienna, with Jean Natterer (1817) (Ref. 45335). More on author: Boulenger.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Africa: Cuanza (Atlantic coastal) (Ref. 1869, 120641) and (southern) Congo basin (Ref. 11970, 120641) in Angola. Also reported from the upper Lualaba in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Ref. 45616).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 45616)
Morphology | Morphometrics
soft rays: 11 - 12. Diagnosis: body elongated, 5.66-6 times longer than deep (Ref. 45616). Body depth equal to head length, the latter 5.33 times in total length; eye lateral, visible from below as well as from above, its diameter 3.33 times in head length; sides and lower surface of head with conical horny tubercles; males with cupshaped apparatus on operculum, much larger than eye, and followed, on scapular region, by a large lamellar pad (18-19 lamellae) (Ref. 1869). Dorsal fin with 7 branched rays (Ref. 1880), originating well beyond vertical of base of pelvic fins (Ref. 1869, 45616). Anal fin with 8-9 branched rays (Ref. 1880). Caudal fin deeply notched, crescentic; pale brownish above, yellowish beneath, with scattered dark brown dots and a series of round blackish spots, connected by a dark brown lateral band, just above the lateral line; fins uniform whitish (Ref. 1869). A black dot at base of pelvic fins (Ref. 1880).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Poll, M., 1984. Kneriidae. p. 129-133. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren. Vol. 1. (Ref. 3565)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00389 (0.00180 - 0.00842), b=3.12 (2.94 - 3.30), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .