Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; depth range 8 - 64 m (Ref. 9790). Tropical
Indo-West Pacific: Northern Australia from Northwest Shelf, Napier Broome Bay, Darwin, to the Gulf of Carpentaria and Pine Peak, Queensland; the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819); Daru, Papua New Guinea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 24.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
soft rays: 11. Preopercular spines usually 3, upper spine short, subequal with next; accessory spine absent. Suborbital ridge usually with 2 spines under eye and several more spines behind eye. Interopercular flap absent.
Taken over sand and mud bottoms by trawling at depths from 8-64 m. Young and juveniles frequently found in Darwin Harbor (Ref. 9790).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Allen, G.R. and R. Swainston, 1988. The marine fishes of north-western Australia: a field guide for anglers and divers. Western Australian Museum, Perth. 201 p. (Ref. 3132)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.2 - 28.8, mean 27.6 °C (based on 474 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00235 - 0.01120), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (25 of 100) .