Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal. Tropical
Eastern Indian Ocean: Indonesia and northwestern Australia (Ref. 5978). Also known from Papua New Guinea (Ref. 6192).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 16.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3131)
(total): 4 - 5;
soft rays: 12 - 15. A short black cirrus on eye. Respiratory valve inside lower jaw with a thread-like, pale appendage. Body without distinctive colour marks. Upper edge of opercle descending backward. Both nasal valves long and tubular. First dorsal fin with 4 (rarely 3) spines. Two basipterygial processes (Ref 42788)..
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sainsbury, K.J., P.J. Kailola and G.G. Leyland, 1985. Continental shelf fishes of the northern and north-western Australia. An illustrated guide. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research; Clouston & Hall and Peter Pownall Fisheries Information Service, Canberra, Australia. 375 p. (Ref. 3131)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.1 - 28.2, mean 25.9 °C (based on 791 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00457 (0.00181 - 0.01153), b=3.14 (2.92 - 3.36), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.7 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (24 of 100) .