Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Gerreidae
Etymology: Eucinostomus: Greek, eu = good + Greek, kyon = dog + Greek, stoma = mouth (Ref. 45335).
More on authors: Quoy & Gaimard.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 55 m (Ref. 26912). Subtropical; 43°N - 51°S, 98°W - 34°W
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and Bermuda to Argentina; including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea (Ref. 9626).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.0  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 111768); common length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3722)
Inhabits shallow waters, being especially abundant over mud bottoms in mangrove-lined lagoons or creeks; larger individuals may also occur on vegetated sand grounds in marine areas. Enters fresh water in limestone regions (Ref. 7251). May occur in aggregations (Ref. 3722). Probably feeds on small benthic invertebrates (Ref. 3722). Marketed fresh but not highly esteemed (Ref. 3722).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; bait: usually
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 22.8 - 28, mean 25.5 °C (based on 504 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5010 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01096 (0.00924 - 0.01301), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (K=0.3).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (32 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 50.1 [20.3, 114.4] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.33 [0.59, 2.81] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.2, 20.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.412 [0.163, 1.098] g/100g ; Selenium = 15.3 [6.1, 36.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 47.9 [8.7, 238.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.51 [0.85, 2.66] mg/100g (wet weight);