Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangaria/misc
(Various families in series Carangaria) > Polynemidae
Etymology: Polydactylus: Greek, poly = a lot of + greek, daktylos = finger (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; demersal; depth range 2 - 55 m (Ref. 57343). Tropical; 26°N - 11°S, 77°E - 154°E (Ref. 57343)
Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific: Tamil Nudu, India to Myanmar and Phuket, Thailand; then from Taiwan to Indonesia and New Caledonia.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3479); common length : 20.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3479)
soft rays: 11 - 12;
Vertebrae: 10 - 14. With 5 pectoral filaments; uppermost not reaching to (or extending slightly beyond) posterior tip of pectoral fin. Pectoral fin, rays short, 17-20% of SL; all rays branched except uppermost 1 or 2. Second dorsal spine long, 7-9% of SL. Well-developed swim bladder. A large black spot anteriorly on lateral line (Ref. 40958). Posterior margin of maxilla reaching to (or slightly short of) level of posterior margin of adipose eyelid. Lower tip of 7th proximal pterygiophore of 1st dorsal fin directed backwards. Lateral line squamation on caudal fin unbranched, extending to upper end of lower caudal fin lobe (Ref. 40970).
Found in turbid coastal waters, estuaries and mangrove creeks, and in mangrove-lined rivers (Ref. 57343). Euryhaline (Ref. 12743). Feeds mainly on small crustaceans (especially shrimps), fishes and benthic organisms (Ref. 3479).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Motomura, H., 2004. Threadfins of the world (Family Polynemidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of polynemid species known to date. FAO Spec. Cat. Fish. Purp. Rome: FAO. 3:117 p. (Ref. 57343)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26 - 29.1, mean 28.3 °C (based on 772 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01622 (0.00978 - 0.02689), b=3.04 (2.90 - 3.18), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for species & Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.9 ±0.0 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .