Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; demersal; non-migratory; depth range - 132 m (Ref. 75154), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 0°C -
Indo-West Pacific: southern India and Sri Lanka to Malaysia, Gulf of Thailand, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Indonesia, Philippines, the Arafura Sea (Ref. 9819), Northwest Shelf of Australia to Coral Sea.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790); common length : 18.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9790)
soft rays: 12 - 13. Preopercular spines 3, upper long, bayonet-like, reaching to or past opercular margin. Anterior 13-33 lateral line scales bearing a small spine or ridge. Iris lappet bilobed in adults, crenate in juveniles. Finger-like interopercular flap present. Total gill rakers on first arch 7-9, usually 8.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Kailola, P.J., 1987. The fishes of Papua New Guinea: a revised and annotated checklist. Vol. II Scorpaenidae to Callionymidae. Research Bulletin No. 41, Research Section, Dept. of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Papua New Guinea. (Ref. 6192)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.6 - 28.6, mean 27.4 °C (based on 911 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00239 - 0.01100), b=3.05 (2.86 - 3.24), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .