Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal; potamodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 10 - ? m (Ref. 27439). Temperate; 10°C - 30°C (Ref. 2060); 19°S - 38°S
Oceania: Australia, Murray-Darling system (except in higher tributaries), Dawson-Fitzroy system of southeastern Queensland. Also in Lake Eyre and Bulloo River drainages and floodplain lakes of Western Victoria and New South Wales. Widely introduced to other coastal systems of Queensland and New South Wales.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 45.0, range 40 - 50 cm
Max length : 76.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 44894); common length : 45.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5259); max. published weight: 24.0 kg (Ref. 6390); max. reported age: 20 years (Ref. 6390)
Golden perch live throughout the river systems, from the clear, fast flowing upper reaches to the turbid, slow flowing lower reaches and associated billabongs and backwaters. They favor deep pools with plenty of cover from fallen timber, rocky ledges or undercut banks (Ref. 27439, 44894). Prefer warm, slow-moving, turbid sections of streams. Also occur in flooded lakes, backwaters and impoundments. Tolerant of temperatures between 4° and 35°C and high salinity levels (up to 35 p.p.t.). Solitary species (Ref. 44894). Their diet is dominated by yabbies (Cherax destructor), and a variety of fish species (Ref. 27439). Juveniles disperse throughout the floodplain to find food and cover (Ref. 27440). They feed on abundant zooplankton on recently inundated floodplains (Ref. 6390, 44894). Adults feed on fishes, mollusks and crayfish (Ref. 44894). Spawn from early spring to late autumn. Golden perch is Australia's most migratory freshwater fish species (Ref. 6390). Spawn in flooded backwaters near the surface at night after heavy spring and summer rains. Usually a long upstream spawning migration is undertaken (movements of 2000 kilometers by tagged fish have been documented). Eggs float near the surface and hatch in 24-36 hours. Males mature after 2-3 years (20-30 centimeters), females after 4 years (40 centimeters) (Ref. 44894). They are being reared by private and government hatcheries in Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland (Ref. 27552) and the fry and fingerlings produced from these hatcheries are stocked in public waters and farm dams (Ref. 26869).
Under favourable conditions female golden perch are capable of spawning more than once a season (Ref. 27439). However, without suitable environmental cues they may fail to breed in season, with the eggs being resorbed (Ref. 27439). Spawning period is from early spring to late autumn (Ref. 6390). They commonly spawn at night (Ref. 6390).
Allen, G.R., 1989. Freshwater fishes of Australia. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey. (Ref. 5259)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5625 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01778 (0.00696 - 0.04547), b=3.06 (2.83 - 3.29), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Subfamily-BS (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.7 ±0.57 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (tm=2-5; tmax=20).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): (0 of 100) .