Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-neritic; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 32°N - 23°N
Northwest Pacific: southern Japan and Taiwan (Ref. 5193). Not in Russia as in (Ref. 27863) (Parin, pers. comm.).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 35.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
Found in the neritic zone (Ref. 11230). Spawning school captured with gill-net in early summer. Common and commercially valued. Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Masuda, H., K. Amaoka, C. Araga, T. Uyeno and T. Yoshino, 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Vol. 1. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan. 437 p. (text). (Ref. 559)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 21.4 - 26.1, mean 24.5 °C (based on 123 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00162 - 0.01126), b=3.12 (2.89 - 3.35), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.4 ±0.45 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Assuming tm=1).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (22 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 178 [73, 439] mg/100g ; Iron = 2.41 [1.33, 3.85] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.5 [16.6, 20.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.395 [0.182, 0.979] g/100g ; Selenium = 27.7 [13.6, 55.7] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 12.9 [4.1, 49.3] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1 [1, 1] mg/100g (wet weight);