Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Stomiidae
(Barbeled dragonfishes) > Astronesthinae
Etymology: Astronesthes: Greek, astra = ray + Greek, esthes, -es = suit, something used to wrap (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 1 - 3000 m (Ref. 74511). Deep-water
Eastern Atlantic: Madeira (Ref. 2802) to off South Africa (Ref. 4465). Western Atlantic: 25°N-5°N. Indo-Pacific: eastern Africa, Gulf of Aden and Bay of Bengal to the vicinity of the Hawaiian and Japanese islands, the Philippines and northwestern Australia. Eastern Pacific: most frequent in the equatorial zone covering the Galapagos. This species is not likely to occur in the central oceanic gyres (Ref. 27676). South China Sea (Ref.74511).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 21.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 559)
soft rays: 14;
Vertebrae: 43 - 46. Body black in color (Ref. 3982). Relatively large luminous patches on operculum and interoperculum, and along ventral margin of lower jaw; its color pink when fresh, whitish preserved (Ref. 559). Serial photopores few and widely spaced (Ref. 559). Body moderately elongate and slender. Chin barbel long and slender, tip expanded in form of thin flaps or swollen bulb. Maxillary teeth are comblike (Ref. 37039).
An oceanic and mesopelagic species usually found deeper than 500 m during the day (Ref. 2802). Feeds on midwater fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 2802). Also Ref. 58302.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Parin, N.V. and O.D. Borodulina, 1996. Revision of the Astronesthes indicus species group (Astronesthidae), with descriptions of five new species. J. Ichthyol. 36(8):551-565. (Ref. 27676)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 3.8 - 11.6, mean 6.1 °C (based on 1689 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00166 - 0.01047), b=3.04 (2.82 - 3.26), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.48 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (16 of 100).