Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 30 - 70 m (Ref. 6943), usually 40 - 50 m (Ref. 6943). Tropical; 18°N - 0°N, 26°W - 4°E
Eastern Central Atlantic: Mauritania to Gulf of Guinea, extends to Cape Verde.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 14.5 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 6943)
Occur over rocky areas in inshore waters (Ref. 6943). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205).
Maugé, L.A., 1990. Chaetodontidae. p. 837-840. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6943)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 18.7 - 20.6, mean 19.2 °C (based on 9 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02344 (0.01149 - 0.04783), b=3.00 (2.83 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.6 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).