Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Stomiiformes
(Lightfishes and dragonfishes) > Gonostomatidae
Etymology: Manducus: Latin, manducare = to chew (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; bathypelagic; depth range 0 - 850 m (Ref. 13608), usually 400 - 800 m (Ref. 47377). Deep-water; 35°N -
Eastern Atlantic: Senegal, Madeira, and Cape Verde; off southern Africa, ca. 19°S, 5°W (Ref. 3991). Western Atlantic: eastern coast of the United States, Bahamas, Straits of Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Suriname, and Brazil (Ref. 37039).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 27.9 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 37039)
Exhibits diel vertical migrations (Ref. 4769); found between 400-800 m during the day and near the surface at night (Ref. 3991).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Quéro, J.-C., J.C. Njock and M.M. de la Hoz, 1990. Gonostomatidae. p. 283-292. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4463)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 5.5 - 14.4, mean 8.8 °C (based on 230 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00355 (0.00145 - 0.00871), b=3.06 (2.84 - 3.28), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.50 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100) .