Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; brackish; benthopelagic. Tropical; 38°N - 8°N
Asia: Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. Reported from Nepal (Ref. 9496).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.5, range 11 - 12 cm
Max length : 18.9 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 125887); max. published weight: 34.52 g (Ref. 125887)
Inhabits slow and shallow waters of rivers of plains and estuaries; never available above an altitude of 366 m. Also found in canals, streams, beels, ponds and inundated fields (Ref. 1479). Has been placed into aquaria and kept by hobbyists; it stays on the bottom and spawns in the upper water-level. The more slender and generally smaller males pursue the female in courtship; several males may join in.
Talwar, P.K. and A.G. Jhingran, 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. Volume 2. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam. (Ref. 4833)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00447 (0.00345 - 0.00579), b=2.99 (2.93 - 3.05), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.51 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.0-1.7).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 510 [252, 954] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.91 [1.11, 3.39] mg/100g ; Protein = 17 [15, 18] % ; Omega3 = 0.428 [0.199, 0.924] g/100g ; Selenium = 55.7 [21.9, 148.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 27.7 [9.3, 78.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.18 [0.82, 1.86] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.