Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Caranginae
Etymology: Uraspis: Greek, oura = tail + Greek, aspis = shield (Ref. 45335). More on author: Poey.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; pelagic-oceanic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 1 - 50 m (Ref. 89972), usually 2 - 15 m (Ref. 40849). Subtropical; 42°N - 34°S, 180°W - 180°E
Worldwide in warm waters. Western Indian Ocean: Tanzania (Ref. 3287, 3197). Eastern Central Pacific: California, USA to Costa Rica (Ref. 2850). Also in Hawaii. Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA and northern Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Angola (Ref. 7097); also Algoa Bay, South Africa (Ref. 3197).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 50.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7251); common length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26999); max. published weight: 2.0 kg (Ref. 40637)
Adults are mostly oceanic and pelagic but sometimes found near the bottom, often near islands. Solitary or in small schools (Ref. 2850).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Smith-Vaniz, W.F., J.-C. Quéro and M. Desoutter, 1990. Carangidae. p. 729-755. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 7097)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial; gamefish: yes
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.9 - 29.1, mean 27.2 °C (based on 41503 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01380 (0.00656 - 0.02907), b=2.95 (2.78 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.5 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 108 [56, 220] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.92 [1.09, 3.17] mg/100g ; Protein = 20.3 [19.2, 21.4] % ; Omega3 = 0.5 [0.3, 0.8] g/100g ; Selenium = 27.5 [13.8, 51.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.4 [3.4, 29.8] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.834 [0.575, 1.229] mg/100g (wet weight);