Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Carangiformes
(Jacks) > Carangidae
(Jacks and pompanos) > Trachinotinae
Etymology: Trachinotus: Greek, trachys, -eia, -ys = rough + Greek,noton = back (Ref. 45335). More on author: Linnaeus.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; reef-associated; depth range 0 - 36 m (Ref. 3277), usually 0 - 30 m (Ref. 55175). Subtropical; 42°N - 25°S, 100°W - 30°W (Ref. 55175)
Western Atlantic: Massachusetts, USA to southeastern Brazil, including Bahamas and many of the West Indies (Ref. 7251). Reports from Africa are based on misidentifications, mostly referring to T. teraia (Ref. 81654).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 54.7, range 48 - ? cm
Max length : 122 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 40637); common length : 94.0 cm FL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3277); max. published weight: 36.0 kg (Ref. 5217); max. reported age: 23 years (Ref. 42149)
Adults frequently in channels or holes, over sandy flats, around reefs, and at times over mud bottoms; usually solitary or in small schools; smaller fish tolerate brackish water. Spawn offshore (Ref. 26938). During the summer, juveniles are found in large schools especially in the surf zone along sandy beaches. Adults feed on mollusks, crabs, shrimps, and small fishes; juveniles on benthic invertebrates. Excellent food fish (Ref. 9626). Highly esteemed game fish caught on light tackle (Ref. 26938).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Robins, C.R. and G.C. Ray, 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, U.S.A. 354 p. (Ref. 7251)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: commercial; aquaculture: commercial; gamefish: yes; aquarium: public aquariums
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.2 - 28, mean 26.1 °C (based on 624 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02754 (0.01639 - 0.04628), b=2.85 (2.71 - 2.99), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.0 ±0.2 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 3.9 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 2 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (tm=3; tmax=23).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 30.7 [12.9, 72.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 1.1 [0.5, 2.7] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.5 [17.6, 21.5] % ; Omega3 = 0.384 [0.158, 0.942] g/100g ; Selenium = 23.3 [7.6, 66.3] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 16 [3, 82] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.728 [0.374, 1.330] mg/100g (wet weight);