Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Perciformes
(Perch-likes) > Eleotridae
(Sleepers) > Butinae
Etymology: Ophiocara: Greek, ophis = serpent + Greek, kara = face (Ref. 45335). More on author: Valenciennes.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 59012); depth range 0 - 5 m (Ref. 86942). Tropical; 20°C - 30°C (Ref. 2060)
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa to the Philippines, north to the Ryukyu Islands (Ref. 559), south to Australia and New Caledonia (Ref. 13235).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 34.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5493); common length : 20.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2847)
Adults occur in brackish estuaries, river mouths and freshwater creeks (Ref. 2847, 48637, 44894). Found in the lower courses of rivers, often upstream from the tidal zone (Ref. 12693). Young are usually found while wading in rocky creeks near the coast (Ref. 2847). Marketed fresh (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Maugé, L.A., 1986. Eleotridae. p. 389-398. In J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds.) Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA). ISNB, Brussels; MARC, Tervuren; and ORSTOM, Paris. Vol. 2. (Ref. 6802)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.9 - 29.3, mean 28.5 °C (based on 2830 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.7500 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00794 (0.00434 - 0.01454), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.55 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Medium, minimum population doubling time 1.4 - 4.4 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100) .