Morphology Data of Notoglanidium pembetadi
Identification keys
Main Ref. Vreven, E., A. Ibala Zamba, V. Mamonekene and T. Geerinckx, 2013
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral elongated
Cross section
Dorsal head profile
Type of eyes
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth
Type of scales

Diagnosis: Notoglanidium pembetadi differs from other species in the genus in having: a small predorsal body depth, 8.2-11.6% of standard length vs. larger in N. akiri, N. macrostoma, N. maculatum, N. thomasi and N. walkeri; a large horizontal distance between the bases of the anal and caudal fins, 15.7-18.6% of standard length vs. smaller in N. boutchangai, N. depierrei, N. macrostoma and N. maculatum; a small interorbital distance, 17.4-24.0% of head length vs. larger in N. akiri, N. macrostoma, N. maculatum, N. thomasi and N. walkeri; an average combined premaxillary tooth plate width, 20.8-26.4% of head length vs. larger in N. boutchangai and N. macrostoma, and smaller in N. maculatum, N. pallidum, N. thomasi and N. walkeri; and an average number of soft dorsal-fin rays, 10-13 vs. 7 rays in N. akiri, N. boutchangai and N. macrostoma, and 16-20 rays in N. maculatum (Ref. 94168, 94483).

Description: General body shape dorso-ventrally depressed, almost of the same depth along the entire body length, generally highest at posterior head region and dorsal fin; body width gradually decreasing towards caudal peduncle, which is laterally compressed; the caudal peduncle is often deeper than the anterior body half (Ref. 94483). Head depressed, not as wide as long; eyes without a free border; snout blunt and rounded; lips well developed; anterior nostrils situated on edge of upper lip; anterior border of posterior nostrils with a minute, rudimentary, somewhat conical nasal barbel; a very small supraoccipital process and nuchal shield as well, resulting in a large distance between both (Ref. 94168, 94483). Maxillary barbels reaching one or two eye diameters beyond posterior edge of eye; external mandibular barbels reaching at least anterior edge of pectoral fin base; internal mandibular barbels reaching posterior edge of eye or approximately one eye diameter beyond it (Ref. 94483). Humeral process of cleithrum small, short and rather blunt; axillary pore present, small and situated just below lower border of humeral process; its presence seems to be the first record for the genus as well as the family (Ref. 94483). Branchiostegal membranes variably fused, often not joint along the posterior halves; they may overlap (Ref. 94168). Combined premaxillary tooth plate of horseshoe-like shape, it is more cardiform or more widely crescent-like in other species (Ref. 94168). Pectoral and pelvic fins almost in same horizontal plane; dorsal and anal fins low; leading edge of pectoral fins finely pointed and not reaching anterior base of rounded pelvic fins; pectoral spines generally serrated on posterior and anterior edge with respectively 3-11 and 2-11 serrations, with both counts increasing with the size of the specimen; insertion of pelvic fins situated approximately below middle of dorsal fin; posterior tip of pelvic fins not reaching anal fin, but reaching beyond anus; all fins, and especially dorsal, pelvic and anal fins fleshy; dorsal and anal fins mostly fleshy towards their base and pelvic fin towards unbranched first ray; adipose fin very low and fleshy, almost continuous with the fleshy anteriormost part of caudal fin; adipose fin very low, 1.1-2.6% of standard length; anterior origin of adipose fin difficult to locate but situated approximately above posterior third of or halfway anal fin; caudal fin rounded (Ref. 94168, 94483). Lateral line midlateral and marked by small, equidistantly situated, white edged pores; body entirely covered with randomly distributed small white edged pores (Ref. 94483).

Colouration: In preserved specimens, overall body colour dark brown; ventral side of head and body whitish, ventral side of body between anus and caudal-fin base light brown, in some specimens the lighter coloured region includes the ventral half of the body; dorsal and anal fins dark brown or with distal thirds white to transparent; pectoral and pelvic fins dark brown except for their distal 1/4 or 1/3 that is also white to transparent; lips and barbels dark brown except for white to transparent distal parts of barbels; there seems to be an overall increase in fin pigmentation with body size (Ref. 94483). In live specimens, the overall body colour of some individuals is far more light brown; in addition, some specimens present 7 or 8 transverse series of black spots in life (Ref. 94168, 94483).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Notoglanidium pembetadi

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb 5 - 8
on upper limb 2 - 2
total 8 - 11
total 39 - 43


Dorsal fin(s)

Attributes no striking attributes
Fins number 1
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total 2 - 2
Soft-rays total 10 - 13
Adipose fin present

Caudal fin

Attributes more or less truncate; more or less normal

Anal fin(s)

Fins number 1
Spines total 0 - 0
Soft-rays total 12 - 17

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  more or less normal
Spines     1
Soft-rays   6 - 8
Pelvics Attributes  more or less normal
Position    abdominal  behind origin of D1
Spines     0
Soft-rays   6 - 6
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
Entered by Boden, Gert
Modified by Boden, Gert
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