Morphology Data of Karsten totoyensis
Identification keys
Main Ref. Murdy, E.O., 2002
Appearance refers to
Bones in OsteoBase

Sex attributes

Specialized organs
Different appearance
Different colors

Descriptive characteristics of juvenile and adult

Striking features
Body shape lateral fusiform / normal
Cross section compressed
Dorsal head profile clearly convex
Type of eyes eyes absent
Type of mouth/snout
Position of mouth sub-terminal/inferior
Type of scales cycloid scales

This species is distinguished by having spinous pterygiophore formula 3-123, 3-132, or 3-122 + 2. (here the 6th spine shares its interneural space with the 2 pterygiophores associated with the first 2 dorsal fin soft rays) (vs. 3-1221 or 3-12210 in other amblyopines); precaudal vertebrae 9 (vs. 10 ) (Ref. 43739).

Description: spinous elements of dorsal and anal fins are soft and flexible; spinous (first) and soft (second) dorsal fins connected by a membrane; anteriormost ray associated with 2 pterygiophores determined as first element of 'second dorsal fin'; a fibrous tissue is present at the base of dorsal and anal fins; anal fin height approximately equal to second dorsal fin height and anal fin membrane broadly joined with caudal fin; pectoral fin bent anteriorly crescent-shaped with dorsal-most rays about twice as long as ventralmost and all rays are segmented but unbranched; pelvic fin frenum present, the basal membrane uniting fins for almost entire length of innermost ray, it is slightly emarginate posteriorly; caudal fin with 9+8 segmented rays, 8+7 branched, procurrent rays absent, represented by ossified nubbins, two dorsally and one or two ventrally; no scales on head, cheeks, belly, and anterior 3/5 of body; cycloid scales only at posterior part of the body; tongue thick, tip rounded, free from floor of mouth; gape wide, mouth slightly oblique; eyes absent; cephalic sensory pores absent (Ref. 43739).

Ease of Identification

Meristic characteristics of Karsten totoyensis

Lateral Lines Interrupted: No
Scales on lateral line 22 - 35
Pored lateral line scales
Scales in lateral series
Scale rows above lateral line
Scale rows below lateral line
Scales around caudal peduncle
Gill clefts (sharks/rays only)
Gill rakers
on lower limb
on upper limb
preanal 9 - 9
total 28 - 31


Dorsal fin(s)

Fins number
Finlets No. Dorsal   
Spines total 6 - 6
Soft-rays total 46 - 51
Adipose fin

Caudal fin

Attributes pointed; confluent

Anal fin(s)

Fins number
Spines total
Soft-rays total 40 - 44

Paired fins

Pectoral Attributes  more or less normal
Soft-rays   14 - 16
Pelvics Attributes  more or less normal
Position    thoracic  before origin of D1
Spines     1
Soft-rays   5 - 5
Main Ref. (e.g. 9948)
Glossary ( e.g. cephalopods )
Entered by Capuli, Estelita Emily
Modified by Reyes, Rodolfo B.
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cfm script by eagbayani, 17.10.00, php script by rolavides, 13/03/08 ,  last modified by sortiz, 06.27.17