Type locality, Chami, ZIN 4208 (lectotype of Triplophysa microphthalma, 55 mm SL, female with ripe eggs). Apparently endemic to the oases of the Chami Depression, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region (Ref. 57754); including Shanshan County in Xinjiang Autonomous Region (Ref. 33800); also usually found in Hami City, Turpan City and Toksun County, Xinjiang (Ref. 51717). Also Ref. 31517.