Common names from other countries
Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Acanthuriformes
(Surgeonfishes) > Leiognathidae
(Slimys, slipmouths, or ponyfishes) > Leiognathinae
Etymology: Leiognathus: Greek, leios = smooth + Greek, gnathos = jaw (Ref. 45335). More on author: Hamilton.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; freshwater; brackish; demersal; amphidromous (Ref. 51243); depth range 3 - 60 m (Ref. 90102), usually ? - 40 m (Ref. 30573). Tropical; 26°C - 29°C (Ref. 4959)
Indo-West Pacific: tropical Indian Ocean and southeast Asia, north to Taiwan and China, south to northern Australia. Also reported from New Caledonia (Ref. 11889).
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 5.2  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3424); common length : 6.0 cm NG male/unsexed; (Ref. 3424)
Found in coastal waters. Enters estuaries and rivers (Ref. 30573). Usually over sand or mud bottoms and rarely near reefs (Ref. 90102). Forms schools. Feeds on small crustaceans (Ref. 5213). Marketed fresh or dried and salted (Ref. 12693).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
James, P.S.B.R., 1984. Leiognathidae. In W. Fischer and G. Bianchi (eds.) FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Western Indian Ocean (Fishing Area 51). Vol. 2. FAO, Rome. pag. var. (Ref. 3424)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: minor commercial
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 24.5 - 29.1, mean 28.1 (based on 1726 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01862 (0.01349 - 0.02571), b=2.94 (2.86 - 3.02), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.27 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 69278
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (K=1.00-1.60).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (12 of 100) .