Biodiversity Somalia (SOM)
  FishBase Complete Literature Reference
Species Families Species Families
Marine 803 163 No
Freshwater 52 24 No Daget, J., J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde, 1984
Total 845 176 No
Ref.   Daget, J., J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde, 1984
Geography and Climate Somalia (surface area of 627,340 sq. km.) has four main topographic areas. The northwest and northeast regions consist of steppes lying on a highland of crystalline rocks which show which show numerous fissures and become uneven along the coast. Mudug area lies between Nogal and the Indian Ocean and the Scebeli River. It is an arid high plateau which rises 600 metres above sea level. The central and southern regions, situated between the Scebeli and Juba Rivers, are a fertile agricultural area characterized by extensive, comparatively densely populated, plains. The Upper Juba region, which lies between the Juba River, Ethiopia and Kenya, is covered by a thick bush and in certain places with forests. The climate of the area where there is the possibility of harvesting inland fisheries is tropical, semi-arid with a seasonal rainfall pattern influenced by monsoon winds; two types of rainfall occur: Mogadishu type on the Scebeli River; and Kismayo type along the Juba River, where there is a continental steppe climate with 388.5 mm mean annual rainfall. The economy is based on subsistence livestock herding, with some agriculture in the better watered south.

Ref.  Vanden Bossche, J.-P. and G.M. Bernacsek, 1990
Hydrography Lakes: there are no natural lakes of significant size. River, floodplains and swamps: there are two mian rivers in Somalia: the Juba and Scebeli. Both run from the Ethiopian Highlands southeasterly across Somalia to the the Indian Ocean. The Juba River empties itself at an estuary near Kismayo. It is about 800 km long and 122.5 meters wide, the area being roughly 98,000 sq. km. The Scebeli River does not reach the Indian Ocean but ends in a swampy area near Gelib. It is 1,100 km long, 82 meters wide, with an area of about 90,000 sq. km. The Scebeli River floods in rainy season and fills up natural ground depressions and an ancient bed, creating temporary sloughs, swamps, pools, creeks and small lakes. Flooding of the Juba River also fills natural depressions, especially oxbows in its lower part. Marshes near Gelib are flooded by collected water and Juba infiltration. Reservoirs: there are several projects for dams and compensating reservoirs (Bardhere, Fanole) for controlled irrigation, stabilization of the flow to prevent floods, and production of electricity. There are some 240 small reservoirs used for livestock watering. Coast lagoons: none.

Ref.  Vanden Bossche, J.-P. and G.M. Bernacsek, 1990
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