Biodiversity Mali (MLI)
  FishBase Complete Literature Reference
Species Families Species Families
Marine No
Freshwater 146 29 No Daget, J., J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde, 1984
Total 142 28 No
Ref.   Daget, J., J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde, 1984
Conservation The following information is to be sought: - Status of knowledge of the freshwater fauna; - Existence of conservation plans; - Information on major aquatic habitats or sites within the country; - Current major threats to species; - Future potential threats to species; - Contact(s) for further information.
Geography and Climate Mali is a landlocked country which has a surface area of 1,240,000 sq. km. The northern part of the country lies within the Sahara Desert and is essentially flat with occasional rocky outcrops. The southern part of the country is in the Sahel and is mostly low-lying rolling savanna. The desertic climate of the north (hot, dry with virtually no rainfall) gives way to a Sahelian climate south of Timbuktu. There is slightly greater seasonal variation in temperature and a single rainy season which lasts from April to October in Bamako. Most of the country is arid or desertic and is only sparsely inhabited. The major concentration of people is along the fertile Niger River Valley and in the well-watered southern and eastern parts of the country. Small-scale agriculture is widely practised, although the Niger Valley is used increasingly for intensive rice culture; to this end the flood control barrages of Markala and Selinguè were built to regulate flows and provide for irrigation. Outside the main irrigation areas floating rice is cultivated at a subsistence level all over the Niger floodplain.

Ref.  Vanden Bossche, J.-P. and G.M. Bernacsek, 1990
Hydrography Lakes: twenty-three main lakes (surface area: circa 2,450 - 3,500 sq. km.) as well as several hundred smaller ones occur on the central delta/floodplain of the Niger River. Rivers, floodplains and swamps: the Niger River and its tributaries (the Baoulè and Bagoye, which unite to form the Bani) are the major arteries of Mali. Apart from this river system there are a few headwaters of the Senegal River, of which the Bafing and Bakoye are the most important. In Mali, the Niger River consists of 3,000 sq. km. The Niger River forms a large floodplain between the Markalla Barrage at Sansanding and the Rocky Narrows at Timbuktu. This plain, the Central Delta of the Niger, effectively comprises two portions. The southern portion consists of a vast area of floating meadows during the flood, whereas north of Laki Debo the river breaks down into a number of anastomosing channels meandering through sandy beds interspersed with rocky ridges. In this region, there are several floodplain lakes. The total area flooded at high water is about 20,000 - 30,000 sq. km., and some 3,500 - 3,877 sq. km. remain at low water. Reservoirs: the Selinguè Dam has created a reservoir of 409 sq. km. near the capital, Bamako. A second reservoir, the Manantali, built on the Bafing River covers about 600 sq. km. These two reservoirs are used as electric power stations. The Markala Dam, closed in 1946, creates another reservoir on the Niger River, and is used for the irrigation of two channels (Sahel and Macina). Coastal lagoons: none, Mali is landlocked.

Ref.  Vanden Bossche, J.-P. and G.M. Bernacsek, 1990
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