|Freshwater||47||15||No||24||Goren, M., 1974|
|Conservation||Water is a scarce resource. Available supplies can be polluted by run-off from the large agricultural sector. Orchards and fields of vegetables are extensively irrigated, despite the low availability of water. Marine pollution has been improved through legislation and enforcement. The following information is to be sought: - Existence of conservation plans.|
|Geography and Climate||
Israel can be divided into five major topographical areas: the highlands of Galilee, the Plain of Esdraelon, the coastal plains, the Judean and Samarian hills, and the Negev. The hills of Galilee dominate the northern section of Israel, extending east about 40 kilometres from a narrow coastal plain across to Jordan Valley and Lake Kinneret (also known as the Sea of Galilee).The Plain of Esdraelon, about 55 kilometers long and about 25 kilometers wide, lies to the south of the highlands of Galilee and extends across Israel from the vicinity of Haifa on the Mediterranean coast to the River Jordan. Formerly a swampland, the valley has been drained and is now a densely populated and productive agricultural region. Extending about 195 kilometers along the Mediterranean, the coastal plains range from a width of less than 1 kilometer to a maximum of about 32 kilometers. The Judean Hills, and north of them the Samarian Hills, form a barrier running north and south throughout most of central Israel.The Negev is a desert region to the south.
Ref. Microsoft, 1996
The water network of Israel includes three main systems: the Jordan system, the Dead Sea system and the coastal system.
The Jordan River flows from the eastern part of the Upper Galilee to the Dead Sea. Numerous small rivers, springs and canals that vary in size and characteristics empty into it.
The Dead Sea itself is, of course, without fish, but spring areas are found around it. Most of these small water systems are brackish and isolated. Their overflow is collected in the Dead Sea.
The coastal system is composed mainly of wide, deep and slow-flowing rivers, without any connection between their drainages. Although most of these have finally become polluted, several of the original fish populations still existed in 1974.
The climate of Israel is generally subtropical, with rainfall primarily limited to the winter months. Rainfall is unevenly distributed, varying from about 1,015 millimeters annually in Galilee to about 510 millimeters around Tel Aviv-Yafo, and approximately 25 millimeters at the southern port of Eilat.
Ref. Goren, M., 1974