|Geography and Climate
Hungary is a landlocked country, located in Central Europe, northwest of Romania. Area comparatively slightly smaller than Indiana. Total land boundary is 2,009 km, border countries are Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km (all with Serbia), Slovakia 515 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km.
Hungary has a temperate climate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers. Terrain consists of mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border. Elevation extreme has the lowest point in Tisza River 78 m and highest point in Kekes 1,014 m.
Natural resources are bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils. Land use: arable land: 51%,
permanent crops: 2%, permanent pastures: 13%, forests and woodland: 19%, other: 15% (1993 est.). Irrigated land: 2,060 sq km (1993 est.)
Environment—current issues: the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments, estimated by the Government of Hungary at $4 billion over six years; the 1997 budget allocated $9.7 million for this purpose; the 1998 budget allocated $11.3 million; the Central Environmental Fund, which collects monies from product charges, environmental fines, and mining taxes, provided approximately $76.2 million in 1997 and is expected to provide $109.5 million in 1998.
Geography—note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin.
Ref. Anonymous, 1999