Biodiversity Estonia (EST)
 
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Species Families Species Families
Marine 69 35 No Anonymous, 1999
Freshwater 53 22 No Anonymous, 1999
Total 88 39 No 75 32 % Anonymous, 1999
Conservation The following information is to be sought: - Status of knowledge of the freshwater fauna; - Existence of conservation plans; - Information on major aquatic habitats or sites within the country; - Current major threats to species; - Future potential threats to species; - Contact(s) for further information.
Geography and Climate Estonia is located in Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia. Area comparatively slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont. Combined. Total land boundary is 633 km, border countries are Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km. Estonia has a maritime climate, wet, moderate winters, cool summers. Terrain consists of marshy, lowlands. Elevation extreme has a lowest point in Baltic Sea 0 m and highest point in Suur Munamagi 318 m. Natural resources are shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber, cambrian blue clay. Land use: arable land: 22%, permanent crops: 0%, permanent pastures: 11%, forests and woodland: 31%, other: 36% (1993 est.). Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1993 est.). Natural hazards are flooding occurs frequently in the spring. Environment—current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations.

Ref.  Anonymous, 1999
Hydrography
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