Classification / Names
Common names | Synonyms | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa
Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) > Osteoglossiformes
(Bony tongues) > Notopteridae
(Featherbacks or knifefishes)
Etymology: Chitala: Bangladesh local name. More on author: Bleeker.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical
Asia: Borneo, Sumatra and Java in Indonesia, Malaya, and Thailand (Ref. 7050). Found in the Mekong basin (Ref. 12693). Protected in Indonesia as Notopterus sp. (Ref. 12217).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 150 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7050)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Jaws increasing in length throughout life, extending far beyond posterior margin of eye in large specimens; small juveniles with slightly oblique bars on body and anal fin; larger juveniles and adults with plain body, overall silvery to bronze in life (Ref. 43281).
Inhabits mainstreams and forest streams (Ref. 58784). Feeds on fishes, probably has a crepuscular or nocturnal activity pattern (Ref. 12693). Other food of this species includes insects and small vertebrates (Ref. 58784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Roberts, T.R., 1992. Systematic revision of the old world freshwater fish family Notopteridae. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):361-383. (Ref. 7431)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 118484)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5166 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00427 (0.00235 - 0.00774), b=2.98 (2.81 - 3.15), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.5 ±0.80 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Very Low, minimum population doubling time more than 14 years (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (81 of 100) .