Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; non-migratory; depth range 0 - 3 m (Ref. 7247). Tropical; 32°N - 8°N, 98°W - 59°W
Western Central Atlantic: Florida, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and along the coast of central America to Panama and Venezuela. Also known from the Bahamas and the Antilles.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 26340)
soft rays: 13 - 15. Juveniles are reddish orange above, with small bright blue spots on forehead and dark spots at upper pectoral fin base, dorsal fin, and caudal peduncle; colors disappear as fish grows larger (Ref. 26938). Adults dark gray to blackish with vertical black lines on body; a black spot, sometimes diffuse, at upper base of pectoral fins which are pale; other fins dark (Ref. 13442).
Adults inhabit rocky shores exposed to wave action. Often in tide pools. Feed primarily on algae and detritus. Territorial and pugnacious. Generally common (Ref. 9710). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205). Taken incidentally in traps and small-meshed beach nets (Ref. 5217).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
Allen, G.R., 1991. Damselfishes of the world. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. 271 p. (Ref. 7247)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 26.2 - 28.3, mean 27.5 °C (based on 449 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01950 (0.00914 - 0.04162), b=2.99 (2.82 - 3.16), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.5 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100) .