Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Siluriformes
(Catfishes) > Loricariidae
(Armored catfishes) > Hypoptopomatinae
Etymology: Hypoptopoma: Greek, hypo = under + Greek, optoma, opsomai = to look at, to watch + Greek, poma = cover, operculum (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; demersal. Tropical
South America: Río Paraná and Río Paraguay drainage basin; no records for the upper Paraná upstream of Salto das Sete Quedas (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 7.1 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 36885)
Morphology | Morphometrics
Vertebrae: 25. This species is distinguished from its congeners by having the odontodes on the snout margin, the rostral plate, and first and second infraorbitals arranged in regular series; along the rostral margin, the dorsal and ventral series are separated by an odontode-free discontinuity approximately as wide as the base of individual odontodes; along the first and second infraorbitals, the discontinuity becomes narrower, but forms a dividing line between ventral and dorsal odontode series; odontode arrangement becomes more irregular posterolateral to the second infraorbital, and individual odontodes become roughly oriented with the trunk axis; in all other congeners, the ventral and dorsal odontodes on the rostrum are variably separated and/or covered by soft tissue, and odontodes are typically not clearly aligned in series (Ref. 84367).
Facultative air-breathing in the genus (Ref. 126274)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Schaefer, S.A., 2003. Loricariidae - Hypoptopomatinae (Armored catfishes). p. 321-329. In R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds.) Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasi.l. (Ref. 36885)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5001 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00759 (0.00331 - 0.01740), b=3.12 (2.93 - 3.31), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100).