Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Gadiformes
(Cods) > Gadidae
(Cods and haddocks)
Etymology: Gadus: Latin, gadus = a fish, cod? (Ref. 45335); chalcogrammus: Name from the Greek 'chalcos' meaning brass and 'gramma' meaning mark (Ref. 6885).
More on author: Pallas.
This species is placed in the genus Gadus in Eschmeyer (CofF ver. Jan. 2012: Ref. 89336). More studies are needed for a complete revision of all genera of Gadidae.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; brackish; benthopelagic; non-migratory; depth range ? - 1280 m (Ref. 50550), usually 30 - 400 m (Ref. 54255). Polar; 68°N - 34°N, 129°E - 120°W (Ref. 54255)
North Pacific: from Kivalina, Alaska, to the southern Sea of Japan and to Carmel, California, USA. The occurrence off the northern part of Baja California (Mexico), as reported from Quast and Hall, (1972) (Ref. 6876) is apparently erroneous.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 36.9  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 91.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2850); max. published weight: 3.9 kg (Ref. 56335); max. reported age: 28 years (Ref. 55701)
soft rays: 33 - 42. The dorsal fins are widely separated. The pelvic fins have a slightly elongated filament. The lateral line is continuous to about the back end of the first dorsal-fin base; it is interrupted at the read of the body. On the head are lateral line pores. Body color is olive green to brown on the back and becomes silvery on the sides and pale ventrally, often with mottled patterns or blotches.
The adults usually live near to the sea floor, but sometimes they also appear near the surface (Ref. 1371). They perform diurnal vertical migrations (Ref. 1371). They mainly feed on krill (Ref. 39882) but they also eat fishes and crustaceans (Ref. 6885). The adults which are spawning are often solely captured for their roe (may have been the case in the first years of the fishery in the U.S., but hasn't been true for some time. In 1994, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council/NOAA enacted an amendment to the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska Fishery
Management Plans effectively banning the practice of stripping roe and discarding the carcasses, R. Rogness, pers.comm. April 2022). The meat is used to produce surimi (this is an imitation of shellfish meat) (Ref. 28499). They are traded as fresh fish, boneless flesh, in frozen blocks or as surimi. The fish is cooked in the microwave, steamed or fried in butter (Ref. 9988).
Oviparous, sexes are separate (Ref. 205). Congregate in dense schools to spawn, usually at 50 to 250 m depth.
Cohen, D.M., T. Inada, T. Iwamoto and N. Scialabba, 1990. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 10. Gadiform fishes of the world (Order Gadiformes). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of cods, hakes, grenadiers and other gadiform fishes known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(10). Rome: FAO. 442 p. (Ref. 1371)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 0.4 - 5.6, mean 1.6 °C (based on 444 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00631 (0.00548 - 0.00727), b=3.03 (2.99 - 3.07), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.6 ±0.1 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 6.5 (3.6 - 7.8) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 25 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (Musick et al. 2000 (Ref. 36717
); tmax = 28).
Prior r = 0.32, 95% CL = 0.21 - 0.50, Based on 8 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (59 of 100).
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High vulnerability (55 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 14.7 [7.8, 27.5] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.265 [0.149, 0.439] mg/100g ; Protein = 15.3 [13.8, 16.7] % ; Omega3 = 0.571 [0.220, 1.435] g/100g ; Selenium = 13.3 [5.1, 43.9] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.5 [2.4, 59.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.536 [0.371, 0.776] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.