Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Cyprinodontiformes
(Rivulines, killifishes and live bearers) > Procatopodidae
(African lampeyes) > Procatopodinae
Etymology: Procatopus: Greek, pro = in front o + Greek, kata = down + Greek pous = feet. More on author: Ahl.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Freshwater; benthopelagic; pH range: 6.0 - 8.0; dH range: 5 - 12; non-migratory; depth range - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Tropical; 24°C - 26°C (Ref. 2060)
Africa: on the coastal plain rain- and secondary forests in southern Nigeria (Ref. 3788, 57259), west and east Cameroon southward to Lokundje river (Ref. 3788).
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 6.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 31267); common length : 5.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 27139)
soft rays: 15 - 19. Diagnosis: larger-sized ‘Lampeye’ species with rounded dorsal and anal fin; fin extensions may be present at the upper and lower corners of the caudal fin and at the anal fin; ventral fins inserted below or just behind pectorals; dorsal fin with 9-13 rays; anal fin with 15-19 rays; scales on mid-longitudinal series 27-31 (Ref. 57259).
Colouration: Male colouration: variable in colouration; light olive to light grey body colour, on the sides strong light blue reflections; on the back in some populations a red-brown stripe, parallel to the dorsal profile; the colour of the unpaired fins is variable and ranges from light blue-grey through yellow and orange to red; these fins usually with a pattern of red spots and stripes; sometimes a dark red margin is present; the caudal fin usually light blue reflecting at its base, changing in the colour as found in the other fins; in its central part spots or stripes in red, usually forming crossbars; a red margin at the upper and lower side may be present; fin extensions, when present mostly white (Ref. 57259). Female colouration: simply semi-translucent grey or pale olive; ventral area more white to silver; unpaired fins colourless (Ref. 57259). Both sexes show an orange reflecting upper part at the eye iris (Ref. 57259).
Found in small rivers and brooks, mainly in the streaming parts on sedimentary soils; in coastal plain rainforests and secondary forests (Ref. 3788, 57259). Not a seasonal killifish. Is difficult to maintain in aquarium (Ref. 27139).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Huber, J.H., 1996. Killi-Data 1996. Updated checklist of taxonomic names, collecting localities and bibliographic references of oviparous Cyprinodont fishes (Atherinomorpha, Pisces). Société Française d'Ichtyologie, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France, 399 p. (Ref. 27139)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: ; aquarium: commercial
Common namesSynonymsMetabolismPredatorsEcotoxicologyReproductionMaturitySpawningSpawning aggregationFecundityEggsEgg development
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.6250 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01122 (0.00514 - 0.02450), b=3.04 (2.87 - 3.21), in cm total length, based on all LWR estimates for this body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.3 ±0.4 se; based on size and trophs of closest relatives
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (10 of 100) .