Sphyrna zygaena, Smooth hammerhead : fisheries, gamefish

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Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus, 1758)

Smooth hammerhead
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Sphyrna zygaena   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classificação / Names Nomes comuns | Sinónimos | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii (tubarões e raias) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Sphyrnidae (Hammerhead, bonnethead, or scoophead sharks)
Etymology: Sphyrna: Greek, sphyra = hammer (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Linnaeus.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecologia

; marinhas; estuarina; oceandromo (Ref. 13562); intervalo de profundidade 0 - 200 m (Ref. 5578), usually 0 - 20 m (Ref. 55303).   Subtropical; 59°N - 55°S, 180°W - 180°E

Distribuição Países | Áreas FAO | Ecossistemas | Ocorrências | Point map | Introduções | Faunafri

Widespread in temperate and tropical seas (Ref. 13562). Western Atlantic: Canada to the Virgin Islands; Brazil to Argentina. Eastern Atlantic: British Isles to Côte d'Ivoire, including the Mediterranean. Indo-Pacific: South Africa to Sri Lanka; southern Siberia to Viet Nam (Ref. 13562); southern Australia, New Zealand, and Hawaii (Ref. 13562). Eastern Pacific: northern California, USA to Chile.

Length at first maturity / Tamanho / Peso / Idade

Maturity: Lm 265.0, range 265 - ? cm
Max length : 500 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 35388); common length : 335 cm TL macho/indeterminado; (Ref. 13562); peso máx. Publicado: 400.0 kg (Ref. 9987); Idade máx. registada: 21 anos (Ref. 116211)

Descrição breve Morfologia | Morfometria

Espinhos dorsais (total): 0; Raios dorsais moles (total): 0; Espinhos anais 0; Raios anais moles: 0. A large hammerhead with a notch at the center of head; 1st dorsal fin moderately high, 2nd dorsal and pelvic fins low (Ref. 5578). Olive-grey or dark grey above, white below (Ref. 5578). Fins nearly plain, dusky or blackish tipped (Ref. 13562).

Biologia     Glossário (ex. epibenthic)

Occurs inshore and well offshore (Ref. 5578), over continental and insular shelves (Ref. 244). Coastal, pelagic, and semi-oceanic, but often bottom associated at 1-139 m (Ref. 58302). Migrates northward in summer; young often in large aggregations of hundreds of individuals (Ref. 13562). Prefers to feed on small sharks, skates and stingrays, but also preys on bony fishes, shrimps, crabs, barnacles and cephalopods (Ref. 244). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Regarded as being dangerous to people, though only few can be tentatively attributed to this species due to its occurrence in temperate waters (Ref. 244). Reported to cause poisoning (Ref. 4690). Caught occasionally by shark and tuna longline fisheries (Ref.58048). Meat utilized fresh, dried-salted, and possibly smoked for human consumption; liver oil for vitamins, fins for soup, hide for leather, and carcasses for fishmeal (Ref. 244). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Become sexually mature when 250 to 300 cm long. The female gives birth to 30 - 40 young (Ref. 35388).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturidade | Reprodução | Desova | Ovos | Fecundidade | Larvas

Viviparous, placental (Ref. 50449), with 20 to 50 young per litter (Ref. 6871)after a gestation period of 10-11 months (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 50-60 cm TL (Ref. 13562).

Referência principal Upload your references | Referências | Coordenador : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Colaboradores

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

Categoria na Lista Vermelha da IUCN (Ref. 120744)

  Vulnerável, ver o Livro Vermelho da IUCN (VU) (A2bd+3bd+4bd); Date assessed: 01 October 2005

CITES (Ref. 118484)


CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Ameaça para o homem

  Traumatogenic (Ref. 244)





Utilização humana

Pescarias: espcies comerciais; peixe desportivo: sim
FAO(pescarias: produo; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

Mais informação

Nomes comuns
Sinónimos
Metabolismo
Predadores
Ecotoxicologia
Reprodução
Maturidade
Desova
Agregação para desova
Fecundidade
Ovos
Desenvolvimento dos ovos
Idade/Tamanho
Crescimento
Comprimento-peso
Comprimento-comprimento
Frequência de comprimento
Morfometria
Morfologia
Larvas
Dinâmica larvar
Recrutamento
Abundância
Referências
Aquacultura
Perfil para aquacultura
Estirpes
Genética
Frequência dos alelos
Hereditariedade
Doenças
Processamento
Mass conversion
Colaboradores
Fotografias
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Sons
Ciguatera
Velocidade
Tipo de natação
Área branquial
Outras referências
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Visão

Ferramentas

Relatórios especiais

Descarregue XML

Fontes da internet

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 11.8 - 28.9, mean 26.5 (based on 3124 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5029   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00417 (0.00257 - 0.00676), b=3.03 (2.89 - 3.17), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245).
Nível Trófico (Ref. 69278):  4.9   ±0.5 se; Based on diet studies.
Resiliência (Ref. 120179):  Baixo, tempo mínimo de duplicação da população 4,5 - 14 anos (tmax=21; tm=8.8; Fec=20-40).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerabilidade (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (85 of 100) .
Categoria de preço (Ref. 80766):   Low.