Ikan bertulang rawan (sharks and rays)
(Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae
Etymology: Rhizoprionodon: Greek, rhiza = root + Greek, prion = saw + Greek, odous = teeth (Ref. 45335). More on author: Rüppell.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; laut; air tawar; payau bentopelagis; amphidromus (Ref. 51243); kisaran kedalaman 1 - 200 m (Ref. 244). Tropical; 41°N - 30°S, 27°W - 156°E
Eastern Atlantic: Mauritania to Angola; reported from the Gulf of Taranto (Ref. 231). Indo-West Pacific: Persian Gulf (Ref. 68964), Red Sea and East Africa to Indonesia, north to Japan, south to Australia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / umur
Maturity: Lm ?, range 70 - 80 cm
Max length : 175 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 12693); 80.8 cm TL (female); common length : 110 cm TL jantan/; (Ref. 47737); Berat maksimum terpublikasi: 5.0 kg (Ref. 40637); Umur maksimum dilaporkan: 8 Tahun (Ref. 244)
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 0; Duri dubur 0; Sirip dubur lunak: 0. A small shark with a long, narrow, snout, big eyes without notches, long labial furrows, and oblique-cusped teeth which may be smooth-edged or weakly serrated; 2nd dorsal fin small, low and behind larger anal fin; no interdorsal ridge (Ref. 5578). Grey or grey-brown above, white below (Ref. 5578). Dorsal and anal fins with dusky or blackish edges, fins slightly darker than back (Ref. 9997).
Found on continental shelves, often on sandy beaches and rarely in estuaries (Ref. 244). Reported to enter freshwater and recorded several times from Cambodia as far upstream as the Great Lake (Ref. 12693). Occurs near the surface in shallow waters (Ref. 12693). Feeds mainly on small pelagic and benthic bony fishes, also cephalopods and other invertebrates (Ref. 244). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Utilized fresh and possibly dried salted for human consumption and for fishmeal (Ref. 9997). The 178 cm specimen recorded off Africa is possibly based on some other species (Ref. 9997).
Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Viviparous, with a yolk-sac placenta; 2 to 8 in a litter (Ref. 9997), usually 2 to 5 after a gestation period of ~ 12 months; no seasonality in the reproductive cycle (Ref.58048). Size at birth between 25 and 39 cm.
Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
Status IUCN Red List (Ref. 123251)
CITES (Ref. 123416)
Perikanan: komersial; Ikan buruan: ya
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muat turun XML
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 19.6 - 28.5, mean 26.9 °C (based on 1463 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5078 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00339 (0.00273 - 0.00420), b=3.08 (3.04 - 3.12), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 4.3 ±0.4 se; based on diet studies.
Generation time: 5.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Daya lenting (Ref. 120179
): sangat rendah, Waktu penggandaan populasi minimum lebih dari 14 tahun (K=0.2-0.6; Fec=1).
keancaman (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (61 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 38.8 [4.6, 150.8] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.754 [0.209, 2.436] mg/100g ; Protein = 20 [17, 22] % ; Omega3 = 0.385 [0.140, 0.985] g/100g ; Selenium = 54.1 [10.0, 164.5] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 28.2 [9.5, 87.4] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.76 [0.35, 1.67] mg/100g (wet weight);