Elasmobranchi (squali e razze) (sharks and rays)
(Stingrays) > Rhinopteridae
Etymology: Rhinoptera: Greek, rhinos = nose + Greek,pteron = fin, wing (Ref. 45335).
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
; marino benthopelagico; distribuzione batimetrica - m (Ref. ), usually - m (Ref. ). Subtropical; 0°C - ; 38°N - 15°N, 18°W - 36°E
Eastern Atlantic: southern Spain to Senegal, including the Mediterranean.
Size / Peso / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 200 cm WD maschio/sesso non determinato; (Ref. 6678)
Found in tropical to warm temperate coastal waters, but absent from islands of western Pacific. Often forming large groups swimming near the surface and quite destructive of commercial oyster and clam beds. Feeds on bottom-living mollusks, crustaceans and fishes. Seldom marketed. Ovoviviparous, gestation period up to one year with 2-6 embryos produced.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturità | Riproduzione | Deposizione | Uova | Fecundity | Larve
Exhibit ovoviparity (aplacental viviparity), with embryos feeding initially on yolk, then receiving additional nourishment from the mother by indirect absorption of uterine fluid enriched with mucus, fat or protein through specialised structures (Ref. 50449).
McEachran, J.D. and B. Séret, 1990. Rhinopteridae. p. 71-72. In J.C. Quero, J.C. Hureau, C. Karrer, A. Post and L. Saldanha (eds.) Check-list of the fishes of the eastern tropical Atlantic (CLOFETA). JNICT, Lisbon; SEI, Paris; and UNESCO, Paris. Vol. 1. (Ref. 4441)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
Age/SizeAccrescimentoLength-weightLength-lengthLength-frequenciesMorfometriaMorfologiaLarveDinamica popolazioni larvaliReclutamentoAbbondanzaBRUVS
BibliografiaAcquacolturaProfilo di acquacolturaVarietàGeneticaFrequenze allelicheEreditarietàMalattieElaborazioneNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 17.1 - 21.7, mean 19.7 °C (based on 136 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.01148 (0.00461 - 0.02857), b=2.98 (2.76 - 3.20), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.8 ±0.60 se; based on food items.
Resilienza (Ref. 120179
): Molto basso, tempo minimo di raddoppiamento della popolazione più di 14 anni (Fec=2).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (90 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 20.2 [2.4, 68.7] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.673 [0.175, 1.669] mg/100g ; Protein = 21.2 [18.8, 23.8] % ; Omega3 = 0.233 [0.081, 0.594] g/100g ; Selenium = 28 [8, 78] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 10.1 [3.3, 28.2] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.539 [0.262, 1.288] mg/100g (wet weight);