Carcharhinus plumbeus, Sandbar shark : fisheries, gamefish
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Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo, 1827)

Sandbar shark
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Carcharhinus plumbeus
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Classification / Names Κοινά ονόματα | Συνώνυμα | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Ελασμοβράγχιοι (καρχαρίες και σαλάχια) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Nardo.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Οικολογία

; Θαλασσινό(ά); Υφάλμυρο βενθοπελαγικό; ωκεανόδρομο(ς) (Ref. 51243); εύρος βάθους 0 - 500 m (Ref. 100719), usually 20 - 65 m (Ref. 55188).   Subtropical; 23°C - 27°C (Ref. 244); 45°N - 43°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55188)

Κατανομή Χώρες | Περιοχές FAO | Οικοσυστήματα | Παρουσίες | Point map | Εισαγωγές | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: southern Massachusetts, USA to Argentina (Ref. 58839); also Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, Cuba and south and west Caribbean (Ref. 26938). Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Democratic Republic of the Congo, including the Mediterranean. Indo-Pacific: scattered records ranging from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands. Eastern Pacific: Revillagigedo and Galapagos islands (Ref. 28023).

Length at first maturity / Μέγεθος / Βάρος / Age

Maturity: Lm ?, range 126 - 183 cm
Max length : 180 cm TL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 27549); 250.0 cm TL (female); common length : 200 cm TL αρσενικό/απροσδιόριστο; (Ref. 9987); μεγ. δημοσιευμένο βάρος: 117.9 kg (Ref. 4699); μεγ. αναφερόμενη ηλικία: 34 έτη (Ref. 92315)

Short description Μορφολογία | Μορφομετρία

Ραχιαίες άκανθες (συνολικά): 0; Μαλακές ραχιαίες ακτίνες (συνολικά): 0; Εδρικές άκανθες 0; Μαλακές εδρικές ακτίνες: 0. A stout shark with a moderately long, rounded snout, high, triangular, saw-edged upper teeth, and an interdorsal ridge; 1st dorsal fin very large and erect (Ref. 5578). Grey-brown or bronzy with no prominent markings, white below (Ref. 5578). Fins plain or with slightly dusky tips (Ref. 5485).

Βιολογία     Γλωσσάρι (π.χ. epibenthic)

Found inshore and offshore, on continental and insular shelves and adjacent deep water (Ref. 244). Common at bays, river mouths and in harbors; avoids sandy beaches and the surf zone, coral reefs and rough bottom, and surface waters (Ref. 244). Coastal-pelagic, but usually bottom associated at 1-280 m (Ref. 58302). Sometimes in oceanic waters (Ref. 9997). Known to make extended seasonal migrations in some parts of its range (Ref. 6871). Feeds mainly on bony fishes, also small sharks, cephalopods, and shrimps (Ref. 5578), rays and gastropods (Ref. 5213). Youngs feed heavily on crustaceans such as blue crabd and mantis shrimp (Ref. 93252). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Sexual dimorphism is evident in thickness of skin layer of maturing and adult females (Ref. 49562). Females live as long as 21 year; males 15 years (Ref. 27549). Populations are segregated by age. Young readily kept in aquaria (Ref. 244). Utilized for human consumption, for leather and oil (Ref. 244). Marketed fresh, smoked, dried-salted and frozen; fins are valued for soup (Ref. 9987). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Records to 300 cm TL uncertain (Ref. 9997). TL to 300 cm (Ref. 26938). Angling: an inshore fish and a good light-tackle fighter (Ref. 84357).

Life cycle and mating behavior Γεννητική Ωρίμανση | Αναπαραγωγή | Γεννοβολία | Αβγά | Γονιμότητα | Προνύμφες

Viviparous (Ref. 26281), placental (Ref. 50449), 1-14 pups in a litter; 56-75 cm at birth (Ref. 2334); gestation period of 12 months (Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Sexual dimorphism is evident in the thicker skin layer of maturing and adult females (Ref. 49562). This thickened skin may serve as protection from the 'bites' the female species receive from the males during precopulation and in the rugged conditions of the rock and coral environment where they live (Ref. 49562). Pups are born from Feb. to April in Northeastern Taiwan (Ref. 37027).

Main reference Upload your references | Αναφορές | Συντονιστής : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | Συνεργάτες

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)

  Ευάλωτο, βλέπε Κόκκινη Λίστα (VU) (A2bd+4bd); Date assessed: 20 February 2007

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless (Ref. 9997)





Human uses

αλιεία: Εμπορικό(ά); αλιεία αναψυχής: ναί

Περισσότερες πληροφορίες

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Egg development
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Length-length
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Διαδικτυακές πηγές

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 16.6 - 28.9, mean 27 (based on 3224 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00322 - 0.00816), b=3.17 (3.04 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
Τροφικό Επίπεδο (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
Ελαστικότητα (Ref. 120179):  Χαμηλό, ελάχιστος χρόνος για διπλασιασμό πληθυσμού 4,5 - 14 έτη (rm=0.028; K=0.05-0.09; tm=12-16; tmax=34; Fec=5-12).
Prior r = 0.06, 95% CL = 0.04 - 0.10, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (88 of 100) .
Price category (Ref. 80766):   Medium.