Carcharhinus plumbeus, Sandbar shark : fisheries, gamefish
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Carcharhinus plumbeus (Nardo, 1827)

Sandbar shark
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Carcharhinus plumbeus   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Carcharhinus plumbeus
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分類 / Names 俗名 | 同種異名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Elasmobranchii 板鰓亞綱 (鯊魚與魟魚) (sharks and rays) > Carcharhiniformes (Ground sharks) 真鯊目 (Ground sharks) > Carcharhinidae (Requiem sharks) 白眼鮫科 (Requiem sharks)
Etymology: Carcharhinus: Greek, karcharos = sharpen + Greek, rhinos = nose (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Nardo.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生態學

; 海洋; 半鹹淡水 底中水層性; 海洋洄游的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 0 - 500 m (Ref. 100719), usually 20 - 65 m (Ref. 55188).   亞熱帶的; 23°C - 27°C (Ref. 244); 45°N - 43°S, 180°W - 180°E (Ref. 55188)

分布 國家 | FAO區域 | 生態系 | 發現紀錄 | Point map | 簡介 | Faunafri

Western Atlantic: southern Massachusetts, USA to Argentina (Ref. 58839); also Gulf of Mexico, Bahamas, Cuba and south and west Caribbean (Ref. 26938). Eastern Atlantic: Portugal to Democratic Republic of the Congo, including the Mediterranean. Indo-Pacific: scattered records ranging from the Red Sea, Persian Gulf and East Africa to the Hawaiian Islands. Eastern Pacific: Revillagigedo and Galapagos islands (Ref. 28023).
西大西洋: 南麻薩諸塞州, 美國到阿根廷;(參考文獻 58839) 也墨西哥灣,巴哈馬,古巴與加勒比海南部與西部.(參考文獻 26938) 東大西洋: 葡萄牙到剛果, 包括地中海。 印度-太平洋: 範圍從紅海的分散的記錄, 波斯灣而且東非到夏威夷群島。 東太平洋: 雷維拉吉哥多島與加拉巴哥群島.(參考文獻 28023)

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年齡

Maturity: Lm ?, range 126 - 183 cm
Max length : 180 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 27549); 250.0 cm TL (female); common length : 200 cm TL 雄魚/尚未辨別雌雄; (Ref. 9987); 最大體重: 117.9 kg (Ref. 4699); 最大年齡: 34 年 (Ref. 92315)

簡短描述 型態特徵 | 形態測量圖

背棘 (總數): 0; 背的軟條 (總數): 0; 臀棘 0; 臀鰭軟條: 0. A stout shark with a moderately long, rounded snout, high, triangular, saw-edged upper teeth, and an interdorsal ridge; 1st dorsal fin very large and erect (Ref. 5578). Grey-brown or bronzy with no prominent markings, white below (Ref. 5578). Fins plain or with slightly dusky tips (Ref. 5485).
一矮胖的鯊魚有一個中等長度的, 圓形的吻﹐高的﹐和三角形又邊緣鋸狀的上顎齒 , 與一個間背脊; 第一背鰭非常大的而且豎立.(參考文獻 5578) 灰褐色或青銅色沒有突出的斑紋, 腹面白色的.(參考文獻 5578) 鰭單色的或有略微暗色的尖端.(參考文獻 5485)

生物學特性     字彙 (例如 epibenthic)

Found inshore and offshore, on continental and insular shelves and adjacent deep water (Ref. 244). Common at bays, river mouths and in harbors; avoids sandy beaches and the surf zone, coral reefs and rough bottom, and surface waters (Ref. 244). Coastal-pelagic, but usually bottom associated at 1-280 m (Ref. 58302). Sometimes in oceanic waters (Ref. 9997). Known to make extended seasonal migrations in some parts of its range (Ref. 6871). Feeds mainly on bony fishes, also small sharks, cephalopods, and shrimps (Ref. 5578), rays and gastropods (Ref. 5213). Youngs feed heavily on crustaceans such as blue crabd and mantis shrimp (Ref. 93252). Viviparous (Ref. 50449). Sexual dimorphism is evident in thickness of skin layer of maturing and adult females (Ref. 49562). Females live as long as 21 year; males 15 years (Ref. 27549). Populations are segregated by age. Young readily kept in aquaria (Ref. 244). Utilized for human consumption, for leather and oil (Ref. 244). Marketed fresh, smoked, dried-salted and frozen; fins are valued for soup (Ref. 9987). Used in Chinese medicine (Ref. 12166). Records to 300 cm TL uncertain (Ref. 9997). TL to 300 cm (Ref. 26938). Angling: an inshore fish and a good light-tackle fighter (Ref. 84357).

發現於岸邊.與外海, 在大陸棚與島嶼棚與毗連的深水域上.(參考文獻 244) 普遍於海灣, 河口與在港灣中; 避開沙灘與海浪區,珊瑚礁與粗糙的底部 , 與水表面。 (參考文獻 244) 沿岸及大洋性的, 但是通常底部在 1-280 公尺聯合.(參考文獻 58302) 有時在大洋性水域中.(參考文獻 9997) 已知在它的分佈範圍的一些部份中作擴大的季節性的迴游.(參考文獻 6871) 主要吃硬骨魚類,也捕食小的鯊魚,頭足類動物與蝦 (參考文獻 5578) ,鰭條與腹足動物。 (參考文獻 5213) 胎生的.(參考文獻 50449) 性的同種二形成熟在皮膚層的厚度是顯著的與雌性成魚.(參考文獻 49562) 族群被年齡分離。 幼魚輕易地保存於水族館.。 (參考文獻 244) 供人類食用, 用做皮革與油.(參考文獻 244) 在市場上銷售生鮮、煙燻, 乾燥鹽醃與冷凍; 鰭被認為有價值的用於煮湯。 (參考文獻 9987) 被用於中藥材.。 (參考文獻 12166) 對 300 公分TL 記錄不確定的.(參考文獻 9997) 體全長到 300 公分.(參考文獻 26938)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 產卵場 | | 孕卵數 | 仔魚

Viviparous (Ref. 26281), placental (Ref. 50449), 1-14 pups in a litter; 56-75 cm at birth (Ref. 2334); gestation period of 12 months (Ref.58048). Distinct pairing with embrace (Ref. 205). Sexual dimorphism is evident in the thicker skin layer of maturing and adult females (Ref. 49562). This thickened skin may serve as protection from the 'bites' the female species receive from the males during precopulation and in the rugged conditions of the rock and coral environment where they live (Ref. 49562). Pups are born from Feb. to April in Northeastern Taiwan (Ref. 37027).西大西洋: 南麻薩諸塞州, 美國到阿根廷;(參考文獻 58839) 也墨西哥灣,巴哈馬,古巴與加勒比海南部與西部.(參考文獻 26938) 東大西洋: 葡萄牙到剛果, 包括地中海。 印度-太平洋: 範圍從紅海的分散的記錄, 波斯灣而且東非到夏威夷群島。 東太平洋: 雷維拉吉哥多島與加拉巴哥群島.(參考文獻 28023)

主要參考資料 Upload your references | 參考文獻 | 合作者 : Compagno, Leonard J.V. | 合作者

Compagno, L.J.V., 1984. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)

IUCN 瀕危狀態 (Ref. 120744)

  次級保育類動物, 見 IUCN 紅皮書 (VU) (A2bd+4bd); Date assessed: 20 February 2007

CITES (Ref. 118484)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

對人類具威脅

  無害處的 (Ref. 9997)





人類使用

漁業: 商業性; 游釣魚種: 是的
FAO(漁業: 產生, 魚種描繪; publication : search) | FishSource | 周邊海洋

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生態毒物學
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Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 16.6 - 28.9, mean 27 (based on 3224 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 0.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00513 (0.00322 - 0.00816), b=3.17 (3.04 - 3.30), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245).
營養階層 (Ref. 69278):  4.5   ±0.0 se; Based on diet studies.
回復力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增時間4.5 - 14 年 (rm=0.028; K=0.05-0.09; tm=12-16; tmax=34; Fec=5-12).
Prior r = 0.06, 95% CL = 0.04 - 0.10, Based on 1 stock assessment.
瀕危性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (88 of 100) .
價格種類 (Ref. 80766):   Medium.