Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 50 m (Ref. 37955), usually 3 - 12 m (Ref. 2850). Tropical; 40°N - 20°S, 120°W - 70°W
Eastern Pacific: San Diego, California, USA to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 25.4 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 5592); common length : 12.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)
(total): 12 - 13;
soft rays: 15 - 17. Body deep, compressed, and disk-shaped; profile of head very steep and slightly concave; snout pronounced; teeth very small, setiform, and set in a comb-like band; base of pelvic spine with an axillary process; lateral line ending under last rays of dorsal fin; body creamy yellow with 5 or 6 dark vertical bars on the head, body and tail (Ref. 55763).
Usually observed in pairs or small groups in rocky areas near the shore (Ref. 4858). Feed on algae and benthic invertebrates (Ref. 28023). Form schools with Chaetodipterus zonatus (Ref. 9286). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Minimum depth reported from Ref. 5227.
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Monogamous mating is observed as both obligate and social (Ref. 52884).
Allen, G.R., 1985. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Vol. 2. 3rd edit. in English. Mergus Publishers, Melle, Germany. (Ref. 4858)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 123201
): 17.3 - 28.9, mean 25.2 °C (based on 231 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82804
= 0.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02399 (0.01533 - 0.03753), b=3.04 (2.91 - 3.17), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & Genus-body shape (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 2.7 ±0.24 se; based on food items.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): High, minimum population doubling time less than 15 months (Preliminary K or Fecundity.).
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Low vulnerability (15 of 100).
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 67.4 [41.5, 108.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.767 [0.512, 1.215] mg/100g ; Protein = 18.9 [17.8, 19.9] % ; Omega3 = 0.123 [0.080, 0.185] g/100g ; Selenium = 32.8 [18.4, 59.6] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 30.7 [9.7, 97.6] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.32 [0.90, 1.91] mg/100g (wet weight);