Actinopteri (ray-finned fishes) > Eupercaria/misc
(Various families in series Eupercaria) > Haemulidae
(Grunts) > Haemulinae
Etymology: Anisotremus: Greek, anisos = unequal + Greek, trema, -atos = hole (Ref. 45335). More on author: Gill.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Marine; reef-associated; depth range 3 - 30 m (Ref. 5227), usually 3 - 12 m (Ref. 5227). Tropical; 0°C - ; 22°N -
Eastern Pacific: Gulf of California to Peru, including the Galapagos Islands.
Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Max length : 51.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763); common length : 30.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 9114); max. published weight: 3.6 kg (Ref. 40637)
Body compressed and deep (depth contained 2.0 to 2.1 times in standard length); mouth small and terminal with thick, fleshy lips; dorsal fin with 12 to 13 spines and 16 to 17 soft rays (XII-XIII, 16-17); pectoral fins slightly longer than head, reaching origin of anal fin; lateral line with 46 to 50 scales; scale series above lateral line oblique; body silvery yellow to green; large scales above lateral line with a dark anterior border, resembling spots; fins yellowish brown (Ref. 55763).
Solitary and found hiding in reefs and caves during the day (Ref. 9114). Juveniles appear in late summer and swim in schools. A nocturnal feeder on reef invertebrates (Ref. 9114). Marketed fresh (Ref. 9114).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205).
Thomson, D.A., 1987. Reef fishes of the Sea of Cortez. The rocky-shore fishes of the Gulf of California. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 302 p. (Ref. 5592)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
Threat to humans
ReferencesAquacultureAquaculture profileStrainsGeneticsAllele frequenciesHeritabilityDiseasesProcessingNutrientsMass conversion
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 23.5 - 29.1, mean 28 °C (based on 161 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 0.5039 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.02630 (0.01476 - 0.04687), b=3.06 (2.90 - 3.22), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species & (Sub)family-body (Ref. 93245
Trophic level (Ref. 69278
): 3.5 ±0.37 se; based on food items.
Generation time: 8.5 ( na - na) years. Estimated as median ln(3)/K based on 1 growth studies.
Resilience (Ref. 120179
): Low, minimum population doubling time 4.5 - 14 years (K=0.13).
Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): High vulnerability (58 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 31.7 [17.2, 57.6] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.429 [0.243, 0.847] mg/100g ; Protein = 19 [17, 21] % ; Omega3 = 0.118 [0.061, 0.199] g/100g ; Selenium = 30.9 [16.3, 59.0] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 74 [23, 227] μg/100g ; Zinc = 0.941 [0.541, 1.472] mg/100g (wet weight);