(Milkfishes) > Chanidae
Etymology: Chanos: Greek, chanos, -eos, ous, and chasma, -atos = abyss, mouth opened, inmensity (Ref. 45335).
More on author: Forsskål.
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sinh thái học
; Biển; Nước ngọt; Thuộc về nước lợ Sống nổi và đáy; sống cả ở nước ngọt và nuớc mặn (Ref. 51243); Mức độ sâu 1 - 30 m (Ref. 6898), usually ? - 15 m (Ref. 89972). Tropical; 15°C - 43°C (Ref. 43081); 46°N - 52°S, 19°E - 77°W
Indo-Pacific: along continental shelves and around islands, where temperatures are greater than 20°C. Red Sea and South Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas, north to Japan, south to Victoria, Australia. Eastern Pacific: San Pedro, California to the Galapagos.
Length at first maturity / Bộ gần gũi / Khối lượng (Trọng lượng) / Age
Maturity: Lm 86.1, range 68 - 70 cm
Max length : 180 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 9710); 124.0 cm SL (female); common length : 100.0 cm SL con đực/không giới tính; (Ref. 9814); Khối lượng cực đại được công bố: 14.0 kg (Ref. 9814); Tuổi cực đại được báo cáo: 15 các năm (Ref. 9814)
Các tia vây lưng cứng (tổng cộng): 2; Các vây lưng mềm (tổng cộng): 13-17; Tia cứng vây hậu môn 2; Tia mềm vây hậu môn: 8 - 10; Động vật có xương sống: 46. This species is characterized by the following: body elongate and somewhat compressed; mouth small and toothless; single dorsal about mid-level of the body; pectoral fins falcate; caudal fin large and deeply forked; no scutes on belly; branchiostegal rays 4. Colour of the body olive green dorsally; flanks silvery; unpaired fins with dark margins (Ref. 49, 117228).
Adults are found in offshore marine waters and shallow coastal embayments, but also frequently enter estuaries and occasionally penetrate freshwater streams (Ref. 44894, 52331). They occur in small to large schools near the coasts or around islands where reefs are well developed. Eggs and larvae are pelagic up to 2-3 weeks. Older larvae migrate onshore and settle in coastal wetlands (mangroves, estuaries) during the juvenile stage, or occasionally enter freshwater lakes. Juveniles and sub-adults return to sea where they mature sexually. Mature adults spawn only in fully saline water. Larvae eat zooplankton; juveniles and adults eat cyanobacteria, soft algae, small benthic invertebrates, and even pelagic fish eggs and larvae. Larvae are collected from rivers and are grown in culture ponds into juveniles which are marketed fresh, smoked, canned or frozen. Brood stocks can be raised and spawned in captivity to produce larvae in the hatchery (Ref. 12868). This species can thrive and grow in water as hot as 32° C (Ref. 9987).
Spawns in clear shallow waters above a bottom of sand or coral and at a distance of not more than 30 km from the shore. Females spawn up to 5 million eggs which hatch in about 24 hr. The larvae seek out clear coastal and estuarine waters warmer than 23°C with 10-32 salinity and abundant phytoplankton. Spawning and fertilization take place at night.
Bagarinao, T., 1994. Systematics, distribution, genetics and life history of milkfish, Chanos chanos. Environ. Biol. Fishes 39(1):23-41. (Ref. 9814)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 125652)
Threat to humans
Các nghề cá: tính thương mại cao; Nuôi trồng thủy sản: Tính thương mại; cá để chơi: đúng; mồi: usually
Các công cụ
Các nguồn internet
Estimates based on models
Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969
): 20.7 - 29.2, mean 28.2 °C (based on 4182 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805
= 1.5000 [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00655 - 0.01107), b=3.06 (2.98 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245
Mức dinh dưỡng (Ref. 69278
): 2.4 ±0.20 se; based on food items.
Thích nghi nhanh (Ref. 120179
): thấp, thời gian nhân đôi của chủng quần tối thiểu là 4.5 - 14 năm (tm=4-8; tmax=15; Fec=200,000).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 3 stock assessments.
Fishing Vulnerability (Ref. 59153
): Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .
Climate Vulnerability (Ref. 125649
): High to very high vulnerability (66 of 100) .
Nutrients (Ref. 124155
): Calcium = 61.9 [29.9, 124.1] mg/100g ; Iron = 0.672 [0.397, 1.225] mg/100g ; Protein = 19.4 [15.2, 22.0] % ; Omega3 = 0.248 [0.112, 0.531] g/100g ; Selenium = 91.1 [37.2, 226.4] μg/100g ; VitaminA = 11.3 [2.7, 41.9] μg/100g ; Zinc = 1.34 [0.84, 2.19] mg/100g (wet weight); based on nutrient studies.