Chanos chanos, Milkfish : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, bait

Chanos chanos (Forsskål 1775)

Milkfish
添加你自己的观测位置在 Fish Watcher
Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Chanos chanos   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
上传你的 图片 和 影像
Pictures | Videos |     谷歌图片
Image of Chanos chanos (Milkfish)
Chanos chanos
Picture by Randall, J.E.

分类 / Names 俗名 | 同种异名 | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

Actinopteri > Gonorynchiformes (Milkfish) 鼠目 (Milkfish) > Chanidae (Milkfish) 虱目魚科(Milkfish) (Milkfish)
Etymology: Chanos: Greek, chanos, -eos, ous, and chasma, -atos = abyss, mouth opened, inmensity (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range 生态学

; 海洋; 淡水; 半咸淡水 底中水层性; 非产卵性溯降河的 (Ref. 51243); 深度上下限 1 - 30 m (Ref. 6898), usually ? - 15 m (Ref. 89972).   熱帶; 15°C - 43°C (Ref. 43081); 46°N - 52°S, 19°E - 77°W

分布 国家 | FAO区域 | 生态系 | 标本纪录 | Point map | 简介 | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: along continental shelves and around islands, where temperatures are greater than 20°C. Red Sea and South Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas, north to Japan, south to Victoria, Australia. Eastern Pacific: San Pedro, California to the Galapagos.
印度-太平洋: 沿著大陸棚與島的周圍, 在哪裡溫度是大於 20個 ° C. 紅海與南非至夏威夷與馬可薩斯島,北至日本, 南至澳洲維多利亞省。 東太平洋: 加州的聖貝多羅到加拉巴哥島。

Length at first maturity / 大小 / 重量 / 年龄

Maturity: Lm 91.8, range 68 - 70 cm
Max length : 180 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9710); 124.0 cm SL (female); common length : 100.0 cm SL 雄鱼/尚未辨别雌雄; (Ref. 9814); 最大体重: 14.0 kg (Ref. 9814); 最大年龄: 15 年 (Ref. 9814)

简单描述 型态特徵 | 形态测量图

背棘 (总数): 2; 背的软条 (总数): 13-17; 臀棘 2; 臀鳍软条: 8 - 10; 脊椎骨: 46. This species is characterized by the following: body elongate and somewhat compressed; mouth small and toothless; single dorsal about mid-level of the body; pectoral fins falcate; caudal fin large and deeply forked; no scutes on belly; branchiostegal rays 4. Colour of the body olive green dorsally; flanks silvery; unpaired fins with dark margins (Ref. 49, 117228).
细长的身体与略微扁长形的; 嘴小而无齿的; 鳃条骨 4; 一个背鳍; 胸鳍镰刀状的; 身体橄榄绿色的; 侧面银色的; 鳍黑边的.(参考文献 55763) 表面地与 bonefishes 相似但是借着进化更先进的借着具有 4个鳃条骨.(参考文献 1602) 颚无齿的.(参考文献 12693)

生物学特性     字汇 (例如 epibenthic)

Adults are found in offshore marine waters and shallow coastal embayments, but also frequently enter estuaries and occasionally penetrate freshwater streams (Ref. 44894, 52331). They occur in small to large schools near the coasts or around islands where reefs are well developed. Eggs and larvae are pelagic up to 2-3 weeks. Older larvae migrate onshore and settle in coastal wetlands (mangroves, estuaries) during the juvenile stage, or occasionally enter freshwater lakes. Juveniles and sub-adults return to sea where they mature sexually. Mature adults spawn only in fully saline water. Larvae eat zooplankton; juveniles and adults eat cyanobacteria, soft algae, small benthic invertebrates, and even pelagic fish eggs and larvae. Larvae are collected from rivers and are grown in culture ponds into juveniles which are marketed fresh, smoked, canned or frozen. Brood stocks can be raised and spawned in captivity to produce larvae in the hatchery (Ref. 12868). This species can thrive and grow in water as hot as 32° C (Ref. 9987).

栖息于外海海洋与水浅的沿岸海湾, 也时常进入河口而且偶然地深入淡水溪流.(参考文献 44894) 进入河口与河的一个海洋的种.(参考文献 52331) 成鱼在海岸的附近或岛的周围形成小到大群体在哪里礁石发展完好。 卵与仔鱼是大洋性的达到 2-3个星期。 较旧的仔鱼在幼龄期的时候向陆地移动而且停驻于沿岸湿地 (红树林, 河口), 或者偶然地进入淡水湖泊。 稚鱼与亚成鱼返回大海在那里它们成熟的性。 产卵只在纯海水中。 仔鱼吃浮游动物; 稚鱼与成鱼吃蓝绿藻,软的藻类,小型底栖的无脊椎动物, 甚至大洋性魚卵與仔魚。 仔魚是被從河川中收集而且成長於養殖池到稚魚期, 那是在市場上銷售生鮮、煙燻、罐裝及冷凍。 窩分枝能被蓄養和產卵在繁殖場在孵卵所生產仔魚。 (參考文獻 12868) 能在水熱到 32個 ° C 中繁榮而且生長。 (參考文獻 9987)

Life cycle and mating behavior 成熟度 | 繁殖 | 产卵场 | | 孕卵数 | 仔鱼

Spawns in clear shallow waters above a bottom of sand or coral and at a distance of not more than 30 km from the shore. Females spawn up to 5 million eggs which hatch in about 24 hr. The larvae seek out clear coastal and estuarine waters warmer than 23°C with 10-32 salinity and abundant phytoplankton. Spawning and fertilization take place at night.印度-太平洋: 沿著大陸棚與島的周圍, 在哪裡溫度是大於 20個 ° C. 紅海與南非至夏威夷與馬可薩斯島,北至日本, 南至澳洲維多利亞省。 東太平洋: 加州的聖貝多羅到加拉巴哥島。

主要参考文献 Upload your references | 参考文献 | 合作者 | 合作者

Bagarinao, T., 1994. Systematics, distribution, genetics and life history of milkfish, Chanos chanos. Environ. Biol. Fishes 39(1):23-41. (Ref. 9814)

世界自然保护联盟红皮书 (Ref. 123251)

  最不相关 (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 June 2016

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

对人类的威胁

  无害处的





人类利用

渔业: 高经济性; 养殖: 商业性; 游钓鱼种: 是的; 诱饵: usually
FAO(养殖: 产生, 物种外形; 渔业: 产生; publication : search) | FishSource | 周边海洋

工具

特别资料

下载 XML

网络资源

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 20.7 - 29.2, mean 28.2 °C (based on 4182 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00654 - 0.01108), b=3.06 (2.98 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
营养阶层 (Ref. 69278):  2.4   ±0.20 se; based on food items.
回复力 (Ref. 120179):  低的, 最小族群倍增时间4.5 - 14 年 (tm=4-8; tmax=15; Fec=200,000).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 3 stock assessments.
脆弱性 (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .
价格分类 (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.