Chanos chanos, Milkfish : fisheries, aquaculture, gamefish, bait

Chanos chanos (Forsskål 1775)

Milkfish
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Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
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Chanos chanos   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Chanos chanos (Milkfish)
Chanos chanos
Picture by Randall, J.E.

رده بندی / Names اسامي عام | مترادف | Catalog of Fishes (gen., sp.) | ITIS | CoL | WoRMS | Cloffa

> Gonorynchiformes (Milkfish) > Chanidae (Milkfish)
Etymology: Chanos: Greek, chanos, -eos, ous, and chasma, -atos = abyss, mouth opened, inmensity (Ref. 45335).  More on author: Forsskål.

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range بوم شناسي

; دريايي; آب شيرين; لب شور موجوداتی که در محدوده وسیعی از آبهای آزاد از نزدیک بستر و یا روی کف بستر، در قسمت های میان آبی تا سطح آب و در برخی گونه ها با قابلیت پرواز، زندگی و تغذیه می کنند.; هردو رو (Ref. 51243); تغييرات عمق 1 - 30 m (Ref. 6898), usually ? - 15 m (Ref. 89972).   Tropical; 15°C - 43°C (Ref. 43081); 46°N - 52°S, 19°E - 77°W

پراكنش كشورها | مناطق سازمان خوار و بار جهاني (FAO) | Ecosystems | ظهور | Point map | معرفي | Faunafri

Indo-Pacific: along continental shelves and around islands, where temperatures are greater than 20°C. Red Sea and South Africa to Hawaii and the Marquesas, north to Japan, south to Victoria, Australia. Eastern Pacific: San Pedro, California to the Galapagos.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / سن

Maturity: Lm 91.8, range 68 - 70 cm
Max length : 180 cm SL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 9710); 124.0 cm SL (female); common length : 100.0 cm SL جنس نر / بدون خواص جنسي; (Ref. 9814); بيشينه وزن گزارش شده: 14.0 kg (Ref. 9814); بيشينه سن گزارش شده: 15 سال ها (Ref. 9814)

توصيف مختصر ريخت شناسي | ريخت ستجي بوسيله انداره گيري

خارهاي باله پشتي (کل): 2; شعاع نرم باله پشتي (کل): 13-17; خارهاي باله مخرجي 2; شعاع نرم باله مخرجي: 8 - 10; مهره ها: 46. This species is characterized by the following: body elongate and somewhat compressed; mouth small and toothless; single dorsal about mid-level of the body; pectoral fins falcate; caudal fin large and deeply forked; no scutes on belly; branchiostegal rays 4. Colour of the body olive green dorsally; flanks silvery; unpaired fins with dark margins (Ref. 49, 117228).

زيست شناسي     واژه نامه (بعنوان مثال epibenthic)

Adults are found in offshore marine waters and shallow coastal embayments, but also frequently enter estuaries and occasionally penetrate freshwater streams (Ref. 44894, 52331). They occur in small to large schools near the coasts or around islands where reefs are well developed. Eggs and larvae are pelagic up to 2-3 weeks. Older larvae migrate onshore and settle in coastal wetlands (mangroves, estuaries) during the juvenile stage, or occasionally enter freshwater lakes. Juveniles and sub-adults return to sea where they mature sexually. Mature adults spawn only in fully saline water. Larvae eat zooplankton; juveniles and adults eat cyanobacteria, soft algae, small benthic invertebrates, and even pelagic fish eggs and larvae. Larvae are collected from rivers and are grown in culture ponds into juveniles which are marketed fresh, smoked, canned or frozen. Brood stocks can be raised and spawned in captivity to produce larvae in the hatchery (Ref. 12868). This species can thrive and grow in water as hot as 32° C (Ref. 9987).

Life cycle and mating behavior بلوغ | تولید مثل | تخم ریزی | تخم ها | Fecundity | توزاد ( لارو)

Spawns in clear shallow waters above a bottom of sand or coral and at a distance of not more than 30 km from the shore. Females spawn up to 5 million eggs which hatch in about 24 hr. The larvae seek out clear coastal and estuarine waters warmer than 23°C with 10-32 salinity and abundant phytoplankton. Spawning and fertilization take place at night.

مآخذ اصلی Upload your references | مراجع | هماهنگ كننده | همكاران

Bagarinao, T., 1994. Systematics, distribution, genetics and life history of milkfish, Chanos chanos. Environ. Biol. Fishes 39(1):23-41. (Ref. 9814)

وضعيت در فهرست قرمز IUCN (Ref. 123251)

  حداقل نگرانی (LC) ; Date assessed: 23 June 2016

CITES (Ref. 123416)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

خطر برای انسان ها

  Harmless





استفاده انسانی

ماهي گيري – شيلات: با ارزش تجاري بالا; آبزي پروري: تجاري; ماهي ها ي سرگرم كننده: بله; طعمه: usually
FAO(آبزي پروري: production, نمايه گونه; ماهي گيري – شيلات: production; publication : search) | FishSource | Sea Around Us

ابزارها

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منابع اينترنتي

Estimates based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 20.7 - 29.2, mean 28.2 °C (based on 4182 cells).
Phylogenetic diversity index (Ref. 82805):  PD50 = 1.5000   [Uniqueness, from 0.5 = low to 2.0 = high].
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00851 (0.00654 - 0.01108), b=3.06 (2.98 - 3.14), in cm total length, based on LWR estimates for this species (Ref. 93245).
Trophic level (Ref. 69278):  2.4   ±0.20 se; based on food items.
جهندگی (Ref. 120179):  پايين ، كم, كمينه زمان لازم براي دو برابر شدن جمعيت 5/4 – 14 سال (tm=4-8; tmax=15; Fec=200,000).
Prior r = 0.28, 95% CL = 0.16 - 0.49, Based on 3 stock assessments.
آسيب پذيری (Ref. 59153):  Very high vulnerability (76 of 100) .
طبقه قيمت (Ref. 80766):   Unknown.